욥기 제5과

욥기 15:1—18:21

욥과 친구들의 두 번째 변론 (Part A)

두 번째 변론 (A)

욥의 세 친구들의 태도는 두 번째 변론에서 극적으로 변합니다. 그들은 긍휼의 마음을 잃어버렸고 욥에대해 전혀 자비를 보이지 않습니다. 이것은 사랑하는 친구 욥의 고난을 위로하기 위한 사랑으로 그토록 먼길을 왔던 친구들이 얼마나 빨리 인내심을 잃고 위로자가 아닌 고발자로 변할 수 있는지를 보여줍니다. 이것이 그들을 악한 사람들로 만들지도 않았고, 절박한 심정으로 말하는 욥 또한 악한 것이 아닙니다. 

그렇다면 그들의 우정에 있어서 이처럼 명백한 가로막힘은 우정에 대해 무엇을 드러냅니까? 확실한 것은, 우정에 있어서 자비와 긍휼 항상 우선되어야 한다는 것입니다열린 마음으로 듣는  또한 우정에 있어서 중요합니다. 그러나 욥의 세 친구들은 욥의 고난에 대한 선입견을 가지고 있었습니다. 그들의 신학은깔끔하고 간결했습니다. 그들은 그들이 가진 인간적인 지식을 넘어서 나아가는 법을 알지 못했습니다.  

하나님은 자신이 누구이며, 그가 우리 삶에서 어떻게 일하시는지에 대한 욥의 이해를 넓혀 주고 계셨습니다. 그러나 욥은 하나님의 가르치는 방법을 소화해낼 수 없었습니다! 그리고 그의 친구들은 자신들의 인간적인 이해의 렌즈로만 욥을 보고 있었습니다. 이것이 친구가 고통을 겪고 있을 때 어떻게 서로 도와야 하는지에 대해 무엇을 말해 줍니까?

  1. 친구는 서로의 하나님에 대한 이해를 넓힐  있는 열린 마음을 가져야 합니다욥의 친구들은 하나님께서 욥에게 무언가 새로운 일을 행하고 계시다는 것을 알지 못한 것 같습니다. 그것은 욥에게만 아니라 그들 자신까지도 근본적으로 변화시켜 줄 일이었습니다. 그 결과로 욥과 친구들은 서로를 향한 커다란 분노로 대화를 맺게 되었습니다.  
  • 이것은 우정의  다른 특징을 드러냅니다우리는 서로의 생각이 충돌할 때에도 서로를 빨리 용서해야합니다. 우정에 있어서 판단주의 (judgmentalism)의 여지는 없습니다. 그들은 여전히 서로를 사랑했고, 우리는 하나님께서 결국에 그들의 우정을 회복시켜 주셨다는 것을 압니다. 그러나 하나님은 먼저 그들에게 서로 용서할 것을 요구하십니다. 물론 근본적인 문제는 고난에 대해 인간적인 논리로 줄 수 있는답이 없다는 것입니다. 분노한 욥이나 친구들 모두 그 진리를 인정할 수 없었습니다. 
  • 그들 안에 서로를 위해 기도할  있는 여지가 없었던 으로 보입니다. 우리는 그것을 두 번째와 세 번째 변론에서 볼 수 있습니다. 

엘리바스가 두 번째 변론을 시작합니다. 15:1-35

엘리바스에 관해 주목할 것들

  1. 그가 욥에게 처음 말할 때 보여주었던 인내심을 볼 수 없습니다. 그는 욥의 지혜를 인정하지만 하나님에대한 지식과 그가 어떻게 일하시는지에 대해 의문을 제기합니다. 
  • 그는 지금이 하나님께 도전하고, 친구들의 지혜를 수용하기를 거부하는 욥을 꾸짖을 때라고 믿었습니다. 그는 욥에게 하나님께서 거룩한 자들을 믿지 않으시고 천국이라도 그가 보시기에 부정한데 (의문스러운가정), 죄를 지은 사람에게는 그 신뢰가 얼마나 덜 하겠냐고 알려줍니다.  
  • 그는 구약의 모든 의로운 사람들에게 가장 중요하게 요구되었던 여호와를 경외하는 마음이 없다는 말로욥을 판단합니다. (엘리바스는 생각을 바뀐 것이 틀림없습니다. 왜냐하면 이전에 4:6절에서 욥에게 “네경외함이 네 자랑이 아니냐?”고 말했기 때문입니다.)
  • 그는 심지어 욥이 하나님을 묵상을 방해한다고 비난하기까지 합니다. 
  • 엘리바스는 욥을 뇌물을 받는 위선자로 부릅니다! (15:34)
  • 그리고 나서 그는 일반적인 악인들의 모습에 대해 이야기하기 시작합니다. 거의 설교와 같았고, 심지어욥에게 직접 이야기하지도 않습니다. 그는 욥의 원망을 무시하고, 단순히 욥을 악한 사람이라고 비난합니다. 
  • 마침내 그는 자신이 욥을 정죄하는 것이 아니라, 오히려 욥이 자신의 입으로 그를 정죄한 것이라는 것을유지함으로써 자기의 (self-righteousness)를 드러냅니다.  
  • 엘리바스는 확실히 정통적인 신앙을 가진 사람이었습니다. 그런데 그것은 하나님께서 친히 모든 사람들중에 가장 의로운 자로 말씀하신 친구의 고난에 대해 긍휼의 마음이 없는 냉정한 정통이었습니다. 

욥은 이제 그들의 삶의 토대가 되는 신학 체계에 도전합니다. 친구들은 어떻게 반응하고, 어떻게 욥을도와야 할지 몰랐기 때문에 자신을 방어하기 시작합니다. 

욥의 대답. 16:1-17:16

  1. 욥은 지금 완전히 혼자라고 느낍니다. 친구들은 그를 아주 죄악 되고 악한 사람처럼 여겼습니다. 그는 친구들을 재난을 주는 위로자라고 말합니다. 
  2. 그는 친구들에게 상황이 역전되면 자신이 어떻게 말할지 이야기합니다. “그래도 입으로 너희를 강하게하며 입술의 위로로 너희의 근심을 풀었으리라.” (16:5)
  3. 그러나 그의 기본적인 문제는 하나님께서 “그를 피로하게 하셨고” (16:7) 온 집안을 패망하게 하셨다는것입니다. 그는 하나님께서 “나를 시들게 하셨고” (16:8), 행악자의 손에 던지셨다고 말합니다. 
  4. 그렇지만 고통 속에서 욥은 놀라운 고백을 합니다. “지금 나의 증인이 하늘에 계시고 나의 중보자가 높은데 계시니라” (16:19) 이 증인이 누구입니까? 욥은 그가 누구인지 알지 못했지만, 그러한 중보자가 계시다는 것을 알고 있었다는 것은 분명합니다. 
  5. 욥의 소망은 나중에 그가 기대할 수 있는 것 이상으로 성취되었습니다. 물론 그는 당시에는 그것을 이해할 수 없었습니다. 그러나 우리는 지금 그 증인과 하늘의 중보자가 예수 그리스도이심을 알고 있습니다. 요한일서 2:1 “만일 누가 죄를 범하여도 아버지 앞에서 우리에게 대언자가 있으니 곧 의로우신 예수 그리스도시라.” 예수님은 욥뿐만 아니라 온 세상이 감당해야 할 저주를 담당하셨습니다.               
  6. 욥에게 이처럼 놀라운 소망의 순간이 찾아왔습니다. 그것은 하나님께서 거의 그의 완전한 구원에 대한힌트를 주신 것과 같았습니다. 그런데 그것을 깨닫자 마자 바로 욥은 고통과 고난으로 다시 돌아갔습니다. 
  7. 다시 한번 그의 영은 깨어졌고, 더 이상 계속해서 살아갈 목적을 찾을 수 없었습니다. 그는 자신의 마지막이 다가오고 있다고 믿었습니다.  

빌닷의 변론 (18:1-21)

빌닷은 세 친구들 중에서 가장 피상적인 이해를 가진 사람이었음이 분명합니다. 그는 지금 모든 자비와긍휼을 잃어버렸고, 욥에게서 어떤 소망도 보지 못합니다. 그는 욥에게 아주 안하무인으로 깨달으라  후에야 우리가 말하리라!”고 이야기합니다. (18:2) 그는 욥이 하나님에 대한 기본적인 교리를 이해하지 못한다고 믿었습니다. 그런데 역설적이게도, 그 지식이 부족한 사람은 빌닷이엇습니다. 

빌닷은 모두가 알아야 할 신학적 교리는 절대로 도전받아서는 안 된다고 고집스럽게 주장합니다. 그의교리는 은혜가 아니라 율법에 기초한 것이었고, 심지어 그의 태도조차도 고난 받는 형제에게 위로하고 섬기는 것보다 정통 교리를 지키는 것을 더 중요하게 생각한다는 것을 드러냅니다. 

그는 욥이 광명에서 하나님을 알지 못하는 사람의 처소인 흑암으로 쫓겨갔다고 결론짓습니다. 빌닷은두 번째 변론에서 새로운 무언가를 말하지 않았습니다. 그의 유일한 메시지는 악한 자는 벌을 받는다는 것입니다. 

욥은 망연자실해 있습니다. 빌닷은 “참으로 불의한 자의 집이 이러하고 하나님을 알지 못하는 자의 처소도 이러하니라” (18:21)고 말합니다. 

생각해 볼 내용들

1. 어떻게 하면 욥과 세 친구들이 더 나은 대화를 할 수 있었다고 생각하십니까? 그들의 접근 방식은 어떻게 바뀌어야 했습니까?

2. 엘리바스에 대한 욥의 대답을 묵상해 보십시오. 그의 대답에서 소망의 어떤 요소들을 발견하셨습니까? 

3. 욥에 대한 빌닷의 불만의 원인은 무엇이었습니까? 

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Job Lesson Four

Job 10:1—14:22

First Cycle of Arguments Between Job and His Friends (Part B)

First Cycle of Arguments (B)

Job’s Plea to God (10:1—22) 

After responding to Bildad, Job then makes a desperate plea to God (10:1—22). He begins by loathing his life, and returning to his original question of “why.” “Let me know why you contend against me.” (10:2) He actually challenges God by saying that He knows he is not guilty. Job comes very close to speaking heretically about God, when he reminds God that although He had created him in a wondrous way and granted him steadfast love, His purpose from the beginning was to punish and destroy him. (10:11-13) He asks God to leave him alone, that he might find a little cheer before he goes to the land of complete darkness. (10:20-22)

Zophar now speaks. (11:1—20)

Things to notice about Zophar:

  1. Zophar is the least sympathetic of all 3 friends. He actually says to Job, “God exacts from you less than your iniquity deserves.” (11:6) 
  2. He considers himself to be a very rational theologian. 
  3. He considers Job’s problem to be ignorance of proper doctrine. He wishes Job knew the “deep things of God.” (11:7-9) He gives 4 dimensions of the deep things of God:
    1. Higher than heaven – what can you do?
    1. Deeper than Sheol – what can you know?
    1. Longer than the earth 
    1. Broader than the sea                                                                                He concludes with an ironic statement. Just as a wild donkey cannot be born as a man, in the same way a stupid man will never get understanding.
  4. It is clear that Zophar is trying to teach good theology, but it is also clear that he has no empathy for Job. More than the other two friends, Zophar lacks mercy and compassion. Zophar did not even realize that he was giving the 4 dimensions of God’s love, which does indeed surpass human understanding. It would have been wonderful if the apostle Paul could have interrupted Zophar’s speech here to explain God’s love. (Ephesians 3:14-19) God’s love is:
    1. High – God raises us up to greater heights than we can imagine.
    1. Deep – God’s love is deeper than hell. He destroys all of Satan’s plans, and walks with us through times of deepest darkness.
    1. Long – God’s love began before the world was created and will never end. He holds us always in His hands.
    1. Wide – God holds the whole world in His hands.

We spoke in the introduction of the need for collective wisdom in understanding the suffering of the righteous. This is true concerning God’s love in the midst of suffering. One person will see the high love, the redeeming love of God in the midst of suffering. Another will see the deep love, how God meets us in the deep darkness of despair when we suffer. Others may see God’s long love, and understand the larger thing God is doing in allowing our suffering. Still others will see the wide love of God and His enlarging us through our suffering to make us able to minister to a world in pain.

  • Zophar attempts to give Job hope by telling him to repent, and then his life would be brighter than the noonday sun. He would walk again in hope.

Job responds. 12:1—14:22

He does not bother to respond to Zophar alone; rather, he responds to all three friends together.  

This is an important speech. First, he answers his friends (12:2 – 13:16); then, in 13:17 – 14:22, he talks to God. Notice how the movement of Job’s speech gradually moves away from his friends and towards God. He basically is saying that he does not want to hear any more of what they have to say; he wants to speak to God Himself.

Job begins with a very sarcastic remark. “You guys are the only intelligent ones. Wisdom will die with you.” But he does know something that they do not know: It is possible for a righteous person to suffer. It is also possible that the wicked deeds of sinners will go unpunished, and that God will even bless them. 

He says they have a very simplistic understanding of the way God works. (12:13 – 25) Job speaks of God having all power, not only to build but also to destroy and tear down. God has power to make nations great and power to destroy them. He brings salvation, and He corrects injustice.

13:1 – 28 is one of the most important passages in the Book of Job. 

Job begins by telling his friends that he already knows everything they are telling him. He is saying, “I’ve seen it all. I am not inferior to you.” He lays out his plans for what he wants to say to God, and he wants his friends to hear what he would say. He wants to argue his case with God. 

13:6 – “Hear now my argument . . .” He is saying this so that they will stop misrepresenting God. In vs. 9, he asks his friends if it would go well with them if God were to examine them. His 3 friends’ conclusions were the same, but each of their sources of knowledge was different. Eliphaz claims that he received his knowledge supernaturally. Bildad got his understanding from teaching he had heard in the past. Zophar based his conclusions on his own theological study. But Job is saying that they do not understand God.

13:15 is the central idea of chapter 13. And it is a verse that Bible translators disagree on. Some translations read “See, He will kill me, I have no hope.” (NRSV, Korean 개혁개정) Most other translations read, “Though He slay me, yet I will hope in Him.” The problem with the former translation is that Job says he has no hope. But in verses 16 and 18, Job does profess his hope. In verse 16, Job says, “I know that this will turn out for my salvation.” Job is saying, “God may kill me for arguing with Him, but I know God will be faithful.” We can conclude that the text of Job 13:15 should read, “Though He slay me, I will hope in Him.” (ESV and other translations).

13:20—24 – Because he has hope, Job asks 2 things of God: that God would remove His punishment from him, and that God would call to him so that he could answer. Job cannot understand God, and he is seeking relief. In verse 15, rather than saying that he has no hope, he is re-affirming his trust in God even though he cannot understand Him. 

14:13 Job prays to God. “Oh that You would hide me in Sheol, that you would conceal me until Your wrath be past, that You would appoint for me a set time, and remember me!” “Sheol” does not mean hell; in the Old Testament, it is the place where people rest after they die.

14:14—17 Job asks a big question and then expresses his great hope in God: “If a man dies, shall he live again?” Job is seeking a new intimacy with God. 14:15 expresses it beautifully: “You would call, and I would answer. You would earnestly long for the work of Your hands.” He longs for God to not watch over his sin, but as a Father, with His loving eye, to watch over his steps, and forgive his sins. 

14:18—22 But then Job falls once again into despair. This leads to the second cycle of arguments. 

Some things to consider

1. Do you think Job’s complaining to God was a sin? Take some time to read through the Psalms and observe how the psalmist complained to God. Is it possible to complain to God without complaining to other people? 

2. How do you understand Zophar’s 4-dimensional “deep things of God?” Does Paul’s description of the 4-dimensions of God’s love help you understand suffering? If so, in what ways? 

3. What enabled Job to trust God even in the midst of suffering? 

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욥기 제4과

욥기 10:1—14:22

욥과 친구들의 첫 번째 변론 (Part B)

 번째 변론 (B)

하나님을 향한 욥의 간청(10:1—22)

빌닷에게 반응한 뒤 욥은 하나님께 간절히 탄원합니다. (10:1-22) 그는 자신의 삶에 대한 증오로 시작해서, “왜?”라는 원래의 질문으로 돌아갑니다. “무슨 까닭으로 나와 더불어 변론하시는지 내게 알게 하옵소서.” (10:2) 그는 하나님께서 그에게 죄가 없다는 것을 알고 있다고 말함으로써 하나님께 도전합니다. 그가하나님께 그를 놀라운 방법으로 창조하시고 변함없는 사랑을 베푸셨음에도 불구하고 하나님의 목적은 처음부터 자신을 저주하고 멸하려고 하셨던 것이라고 말할 때는 하나님에 대해 거의 이단처럼 말할 뻔했습니다. (10:11-13) 그는 어둡고 죽음의 그늘진 땅으로 가기 전에 잠시나마 평안할 수 있도록 자신을 홀로 내버려두어 달라고 하나님께 간구합니다. (10:20-22)

소발이 이제 말하기 시작합니다. (11:1-20) 

소발에 관해 주목할 만한 내용들:

  1. 소발은 세 친구들 중에 가장 동정심이 적은 사람이었습니다. 그는 실제로 “하나님께서 너로 하여금 너의죄를 잊게 하여 주셨음을 알라”고 욥에게 말했습니다. (11:6)
  2. 그는 자신이 아주 이성적인 신학자라고 생각했습니다. 
  3. 그는 욥의 문제가 올바른 교리에 대한 무지라고 여겼습니다. 그는 욥이 “하나님의 오묘함” (11:7-9)을 알게 되기를 원했습니다. 그는 하나님의 오묘함의 4가지 범주를 제시합니다.  
  4. 하늘보다 높은– 네가 무엇을 하겠느냐?
  5. 스올보다 깊은 – 네가 어찌 알겠느냐?
  6. 땅보다 긴
  7. 바다보다 넓은

그는 비꼬는 듯한 진술로 결론을 맺습니다. 야생 들나귀가 사람을 낳을 수 없는 것처럼, 어리석은 사람은 결코 지혜를 얻을 수 없다고 말입니다. 

  • 소발이 좋은 신학을 가르치려 했다는 것은 명백합니다. 그러나 그가 욥에게 공감하지 못하고 있다는 것또한 분명합니다. 소발은 다른 두 친구들보다 더 자비와 긍휼이 부족했습니다. 소발은 자신이 인간의 이해를 뛰어넘는 하나님의 사랑의 네 가지 범주를 제시하고 있다는 것조차 깨닫지 못했습니다. 사도 바울이 여기서 소발이 말하는 것을 가로막고 하나님의 사랑을 설명해 주었더라면 좋았을 뻔했습니다. (에베소서 3:14-19) 하나님의 사랑은 이와 같습니다:
  • 높이 – 하나님은 우리를 우리가 상상하는 것보다 훨씬 높이 우리를 끌어올리십니다. 
  • 깊이 – 하나님의 사랑은 지옥보다 깊습니다. 그분은 사탄의 모든 계획을 멸하시고, 가장 깊은 어둠의 시간 동안 우리와 동행하십니다. 
  • 길이 – 하나님의 사랑은 세상이 창조되기 전에 시작되었으며 결코 끝나지 않을 것입니다. 그분은항상 우리를 그분의 손으로 붙잡고 계십니다.  
  • 넓이 – 하나님은 그의 손으로 온 세상을 붙들고 계십니다. 

우리는 의인이 받는 고난을 이해하기 위해 집단적인 공동의 지혜가 필요하다는 것을 서론에서 이야기했습니다. 고난 중에 역사하시는 하나님의 사랑에 대해서는 더욱 그렇습니다. 어떤 사람은 고난 중에 높은 사랑, 즉 우리를 구속하시는 사랑을 알게 될 것입니다. 다른 사람은 깊은 사랑, 즉 절망의 깊은 어둠 속에서 어떻게 하나님께서 우리를 만나 주시는지 알게 될 것입니다. 또 다른 사람들은 하나님의 길고 긴 사랑을 알게되고, 하나님께서 고난을 허락하시는 중에 행하시는 더 큰 일을 이해하게 될 것입니다. 그리고 또 다른 사람은 하나님의 넓은 사랑을 알게 될 것이며, 고난을 통해 우리를 확장시키셔서 우리로 하여금 세상의 고통 가운데서 사역할 수 있게 하시는 것을 경험하게 될 것입니다. 

  • 소발은 회개하라고 욥에게 이야기함으로써 소망을 주려고 시도했습니다. 그러면 그의 삶이 한낮의 태양보다 더 밝게 될 것이라고 말했습니다. 욥이 소망 가운데 다시 걷게 될 것이라고 말입니다. 

Job responds. 12:1—14:22

 반응. 12:1-14:22

욥은 소발에게만 대답하려고 하지 않았고, 오히려 세 친구들 모두에게 함께 반응합니다. 

이것은 중요한 변론입니다. 첫째, 그는 친구들에게 응답했습니다. (12:2-13:16) 그리고 나서 13:17-14:22절에서 하나님과 이야기합니다. 욥의 이야기의 움직임이 어떻게 그의 친구들에서 점점 멀어져서 하나님께로 향하게 되는지에 주목하십시오. 그는 기본적으로 그들이 말하는 것을 더 이상 듣지 않고 싶다고말합니다. 그는 하나님과 직접 대화하기 원했습니다. 

욥은 아주 비꼬는 말로 시작합니다. “너희가 참으로 백성이로구나 너희가 죽으면 지혜도 죽겠구나.” 그런데 그는 그들이 모르는 것을 알고 있었습니다. 그것은 의로운 사람이 고난을 받을 수 있다는 것이었습니다. 죄인들의 악한 행위 또한 저주받지 않을 수 있고, 하나님께서 그들을 축복하기까지 할 수도 있다는 것입니다.  

그는 친구들이 하나님의 일하시는 방식에 대해 매우 단순한 이해만 가지고 있다고 말합니다. (12:13-25) 욥은 하나님께서 지으실 뿐 아니라 멸하시고 헐어내실 수 있는 모든 능력을 가지셨다고 말합니다. 하나님은 민족들을 커지게도 하시고 다시 멸하실 수 있는 능력을 가지셨습니다. 그는 구원을 가져오시며, 불의를 바로 잡으십니다. 

13:1-28은 욥기에서 가장 중요한 구절들 중 하나입니다. 

욥은 친구들에게 그들이 자신에게 말한 모든 것을 이미 알고 있다고 말하면서 시작합니다. 그는 “너희아는 것을 나도 아노니 너희만 못하지 않으니라.”고 말합니다. 그는 하나님께 하고자 하는 말이 무엇인지에대한 그의 계획을 펼쳐 보입니다. 그리고 그가 하고자 하는 말을 친구들이 듣기를 원합니다. 그는 자신의 상황을 놓고 하나님과 변론하기 원합니다. 

13:6 – “너희는 나의 변론을 들으며… “ 그는 그들이 하나님에 대해 왜곡해서 말하는 것을 막기 위해이렇게 말합니다. 9절에서 그는 친구들에게 하나님이 너희를 감찰하시면 좋겠느냐고 묻습니다. 세 친구들의 결론은 같았지만, 그들의 지식의 원천은 제각각 달랐습니다. 엘리바스는 그의 지식을 초자연적으로 받았다고 주장했습니다. 빌닷은 전에 그가 들었던 교훈으로부터 이해를 얻었다고 합니다. 소발은 자기 자신의신학적 연구를 기반으로 결론을 내렸습니다. 그러나 욥은 그들이 하나님을 이해하지 못한다고 말하고 있습니다. 

13:15절은 13장의 핵심 개념입니다. 그리고 이 절은 성경 번역가들이 동의하지 않는 구절입니다. 어떤번역본은 “그가 나를 죽이시리니 내가 희망이 없노라”고 번역합니다. (개역개정판) 대부분의 다른 번역은“그가 나를 죽이실지라도, 나는 그에게 소망을 두노라. (Though He slay me, yet I will hope in Him.)”고 번역합니다. 처음 번역본 (개역개정판)의 문제는 욥이 자기에게 소망이 없다고 말했다는 데 있습니다. 그런데 16절과 18절에서 욥은 소망을 공언합니다. 16절에서 욥은 “이것이 나의 구원이 되리라”고 말합니다. 욥은 “하나님께서 내가 그와 변론한 것으로 인해 나를 죽이실 수 있지만, 그렇다 해도 하나님은 신실하신 분임을 안다”고 말하고 있습니다. “그가 나를 죽이실지라도, 나는 그에게 소망을 두노라. (Though He slay me, yet I will hope in Him.)” (ESV및 기타 번역본)

13:20-24 – 욥은 소망이 있었기 때문에 하나님께 두 가지를 요구합니다. 자신을 향한 그분의 저주를제하여 주시기를, 그리고 하나님께서 그를 부르셔서 그가 응답할 수 있기를 구합니다. 욥은 하나님을 이해할 수 없었으며, 하나님께서 그를 구원해 주시기를 구했습니다. 15절에서 그는 소망이 없다고 말하는 것이아니라, 비록 하나님을 이해할 수 없지만 하나님을 신뢰한다는 것을 재확인했습니다.  

14:13 욥은 하나님께 기도합니다. “주는 나를 스올에 감추시며 주의 진노를 돌이키실 때까지 나를 숨기시고 나를 위하여 규례를 정하시고 나를 기억하옵소서!” (한국어 번역) “스올은 지옥을 의미하지 않습니다. 구약에서 말하는 스올은 사람들이 죽고 나서 쉬는 곳입니다. 

14:14-17 욥은 큰 질문을 하고 나서 하나님에 대한 큰 소망을 표현합니다. “장정이라도 죽으면 어찌 다시 살리이까?” 욥은 하나님과의 새로운 친밀감을 구하고 있습니다. 14:15절은 그것을 아름답게 표현합니다. “주께서는 나를 부르시겠고 나는 대답하겠나이다 주께서는 주의 손으로 지으신 것을 기다리시겠나이다.” 그는 하나님께서 그의 죄를 감찰하지 않으시기를 간절히 바랍니다. 그러면서도, 사랑의 눈으로, 아버지로서 그의 걸음을 지켜 주시고, 그의 죄를 용서해 주시기를 간구합니다. 

14:18-22 그렇지만 그리고 나서 욥은 다시 한번 절망에 빠집니다. 이것은 두 번째 변론으로 이어집니다. 

생각해 볼 것들

1. 욥이 하나님께 불평한 것이 죄였다고 생각하십니까? 시편을 읽으면서 시편 기자가 하나님께 어떻게불평하고 원망했는지를 관찰하십시오. 다른 사람에게 불평하지 않으면서 하나님께 불평하는 것이 가능합니까?

2. 소발이 말한 “하나님의 오묘함” 의 네 가지 범주에 대해 어떻게 이해하십니까? 바울이 하나님의 사랑의 네 가지 범주에 대해 묘사한 것이 고난을 이해하는 데 도움을 줍니까? 만일 그렇다면, 어떤 도움을 주었습니까?

3. 무엇이 욥으로 하여금 고난 중에도 하나님을 신뢰하도록 해 주었습니까?

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Job Lesson Three

Job 4:1—9:35

First Cycle of Arguments Between Job and His Friends (Part A)

First Cycle of Arguments (A)

Shocked by Job’s response to his suffering, his three friends began to speak. They tried to reason with Job, and to instruct him in the ways of God. There are three cycles of arguments, which form the largest section of the Book of Job (Chapters 4:1—31:40) 

At times, Job’s friends try to encourage and console him. At other times, they accuse him. In the beginning, they all offer hope, but at the end they only accuse him and attack him. But we must remember, they are not Job’s enemies; they are his good friends who came to comfort him. The problem is that they had no solution. As we study these three cycles of his dialogue with his friends, try to put yourself in the position of each person speaking, perhaps even imagining how you would comfort Job if you had been there. 

Eliphaz spoke first. He was the oldest of the friends. In chapter 42, when God speaks to the friends, He calls only Eliphaz by name; so he was clearly the leader. 

Things to notice about Eliphaz

  1. Eliphaz begins with a gentle reproof of Job, reminding Job that his fear of the Lord should give him confidence. He tried to teach Job that man is born to trouble, and that we must accept it. He is speaking like a wise counselor. But even while he is encouraging Job, he begins to accuse Job of lack of trust in God.
  • He begins to mildly rebuke Job by reminding him that no one who is innocent perishes. (4:7-8) He is no longer a counselor, but decides to speak as a wise theologian. Eliphaz is very orthodox in his belief. Of course his orthodoxy was a strict adherence to the law. Consider how Job must have felt as he listened to Eliphaz. He is in complete agony. He has lost everything, all of his children; he is in great physical pain. Even worse, he now feels that the God whom he had faithfully served has now turned against him.  
  • Eliphaz then says (4:12), “Now a word was secretly brought to me.” He said that a deep vision came to him while he slept. Ch. 4:15-16 describes it: “A spirit glided past my face; the hair of my flesh stood up.” Then he heard a voice: “Can a mortal be more righteous than God?”   He believed that he was so important that God would whisper a secret to him about Job.
  • Beginning in chapter 5, Eliphaz begins to be judgmental of Job. He is now insensitive towards Job. At the same time, he tries to empathize: If it were me, I would seek God and commit my cause to Him. (5:8) He even goes so far as to say that happy is the man whom God chastens. But he is clearly judgmental. He speaks like an orthodox legal theologian. He reminds Job of orthodox doctrine – that is, the orthodox teaching of the law. And he lectures him on the benefit of God’s chastisement. 
  • Summary of Eliphaz’s speech: Since Job has lived a faithful life, none of these calamities should have happened to him. But since they did happen, Job should seek God and ask for forgiveness. He assures Job that many blessings will follow God’s chastisement. In 5:27, he speaks for all 3 friends and says, “we have searched it out; it is true. Hear, and know it is for your good.”

Eliphaz is very shallow in his theology. He does not understand the ways of God, and he cannot believe that Job is a godly man.

Job responds (6:1) that his life is nothing more than a breath, and that he will speak in the anguish of his spirit, that he will complain in the bitterness of his soul. He admits that he has spoken recklessly to God, and that he may have been irreverent in his speech. But he insists that he has not spoken anything evil. He only asks that God would either crush him and destroy him, or teach him about why these terrible things are happening. Job insinuates that all three friends are afraid of these terrible things because they cannot explain them in their neat orthodox framework (6:21).

Job is at the same time broken before God but also defiant. He says, in 7:11, “I will complain in the bitterness of my soul.”  He calls God the “watcher of mankind.” (7:20) Job twists Scripture when he uses Psalm 8 — “What is man, that you are mindful of him?” In Psalm 8, the psalmist marvels at God’s lowering Himself to speak so highly of man. But Job misuses the psalm and asks God why He visits man every morning and tests him every moment. Job ends his response by ask God why He does not forgive whatever sin he may have. 

Bildad (8:1) now speaks. 

Things to notice about Bildad 

  1. Bildad believes that suffering is God’s punishment for sin, and that Job’s children’s deaths were proof that they had sinned.  
  • Since Job has not died, his sin must not be as serious. So all he has to do is repent, and he will be restored. “After all,” he said, “if you were pure and right, God would prosper you.” (8:6) Bildad’s remarks in 8:4-6 are filled with irony.
  • Bildad is insensitive to Job and his situation. He is shockingly blunt when he speaks. Everything he says is straightforward – “You reap what you sow.”
  • He agrees with Eliphaz that no man can be righteous before God; but then he tells him that he should be pure and righteous. 
  • But Bildad closes with hope. “God will not reject you if you repent. He will yet fill your mouth with laughter.” (v. 21)
  • Bildad’s three speeches in this book reveal that he has only a shallow knowledge of God and how He works. He is trying to help Job, but he judges him because he cannot believe that Job is a godly man. 

Job responds. (9:1—35) 

Job responds with his strongest questions yet. He is overwhelmed with a feeling of powerlessness. He feels trapped. He even begins to accuse God of wanting to destroy him.  

He responds first to Bildad (9:1—35). His opening remarks to Bildad are filled with irony. “But how can a man be in the right before God? If one wished to contend with Him, one could not answer Him once in a thousand times.” ((9:2-3) He reveals to Bildad his intense frustration that “God has passed me by, and I see Him not. (9:11) This is Job’s big question to Bildad: “How can a man be righteous before God?”

He knows that Bildad cannot answer his question, because he believes that God is not here to bless him, but rather to accuse him. He says that even if he were in the right and God was wrong, he could not answer God, because God is too powerful for a human to answer Him. God is in complete control. He concludes by saying, “I must appeal for mercy to my accuseror judge. (The Hebrew word carries both meanings). (9:15) He even said, “If I called and He answered me, I would not believe that He was listening to my voice.” (9:16) 

Job’s agony is that he believes God is accusing him, even though he is righteous. He cannot call to God and expect an answer, because God is not a man that he could reason with Him. Job’s greatest longing was for a mediator between him and God. “Would that there was an arbiter/mediator between us, who might lay his hand on us both!” (9:32-33)

The Hebrew word for “mediator” [mokiakh] does not mean a judge, but rather one who settles a dispute by reconciliation, done by laying his hands on both parties as a mutual friend. [This is a foreshadowing of Jesus, the one Mediator between God and man.]

This is the first time Job mentions a mediator, and we will see later that he develops this theme, and actually comes to believe that there is a mediator.

Some things to consider

 1. How would you describe Eliphaz? As a friend? As a counselor? As a theologian? How do you understand Job’s response to Eliphaz?

2. How would you evaluate Bildad’s argument? What was his difficulty in relating to Job? Can you identify with Job in his response to Bildad? 

3. Have you ever felt somewhat like Job, about your own sufferings, or those of the world? Have you seen the incredible suffering in North Korea, or the horrible persecution of Christians in nations around the world today, and asked the question, “Where is God? Why does He not intervene for the sake of the righteous?”

4. How have you responded to the intense suffering of so many righteous people in the world today? How do you think Job understood the concept of “mediator” in regard to his own suffering?

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욥기 재3과

욥기 4:1-9:35

욥과 친구들의 첫 번째 변론 (Part A)

 번째 변론 (A)

고난을 대하는 욥의 반응에 놀란 세 친구들은 말을 꺼내기 시작합니다. 그들은 욥을 설득하려 했고, 하나님에 대해서 가르치려 했습니다. 세 차례에 걸쳐 진행된 그들의 변론은 욥기에서 가장 큰 부분을 차지합니다. (4:1-31:40) 

때로, 욥의 친구들은 욥을 격려하고 위로하려고 했습니다. 어떤 때는 그를 비난했습니다. 처음에 그들모두는 소망을 주지만, 결국에 가서는 욥을 비난하고 공격하기만 했습니다. 그럼에도 우리가 기억해야 하는것은 그들이 욥의 적이 아니었다는 것입니다. 그들은 욥을 위로하러 왔던 좋은 친구들입니다. 문제는 그들에게 해결책이 없었다는 데 있습니다. 우리가 세 차례에 걸쳐 이어지는 욥과 친구들의 대화를 공부하는 동안 각각의 말하는 사람들의 입장에 서도록 노력해 보십시오. 욥이 거기 있었다면 어떻게 그를 위로할 것인지도 상상해 보시기 바랍니다.  

엘리바스가 먼저 이야기를 시작합니다. 그는 가장 큰 어른이었습니다. 42장에서 친구들에게 말씀하실때, 하나님은 엘리바스의 이름만 불렀습니다. 그것은 그가 그들 중 리더였음을 명확히 보여줍니다. 

엘리바스에 관해 주목할 내용들

  1. 엘리바스는 욥에 대한 온화한 책망으로 시작해서, 하나님을 경외하는 욥의 마음이 그에게 확신을 줄 것임을 상기시킵니다. 그는 욥에게 사람은 고생을 위해 태어났고, 우리는 그것을 받아들여야만 한다고 가르치려 했습니다. 그는 지혜로운 조언자처럼 말했습니다. 그렇지만 욥을 격려하는 중에도 하나님에 대한신뢰가 부족하다고 욥에 대해 비난하기 시작했습니다. 
  • 그는 죄 없이 망한 사람은 아무도 없다는 것 (4:7-8)을 욥에게 떠올리게 하면서 부드럽게 그를 꾸짖기 시작합니다. 그는 더 이상 조언자가 아니었으며, 현명한 신학자처럼 말하기로 결심합니다. 엘리바스는 아주 정통적인 신앙의 소유자였습니다. 물론 그가 따르는 정통성은 율법을 엄격하게 고수하는 것이었습니다. 엘리바스의 말을 들을 때 욥이 어떤 감정을 느꼈을지 생각해 보십시오. 그는 철저한 고통 속에 있었습니다. 그는 모든 자녀를 포함한 모든 것을 잃었습니다. 더 심각한 것은, 그가 신실하게 섬겨 왔던 하나님이 이제 그에게서 돌아섰다고 느끼고 있다는 사실입니다.  
  • 엘리바스는 이렇게 말했습니다. (4:12) “어떤 말씀이 내게 가만히 이르고 …” 그는 잠들 즈음에 깊은 환상이 임했다고 말했습니다. 욥기 4:15-16절은 그것을 이렇게 묘사합니다. “그의 입김이 나의 얼굴을 스치자  몸에 소름이 끼쳤네.” (북한성경 번역) 그리고 나서 그는 이런 목소리를 들었습니다. 사람이 어찌 하나님보다 의롭겠느냐?” 그는 하나님께서 욥에 대한 비밀한 것을 속삭이며 말씀하실 정도로 자신이중요한 사람이라고 믿었습니다. 
  • 5장부터 엘리바스는 욥을 판단하기 시작합니다. 그는 이제 욥에 대해 무감각해져버렸습니다. 동시에 그는 “나라면 하나님을 찾겠고 내 일을 하나님께 의탁하리라” (5:8)고 힘주어 말했습니다. 그는 심지어 하나님께 징계받는 자가 복이 있다고 말하기에 이르렀습니다. 그러나 그는 확실히 비판적이었습니다. 그는정통 율법 신학자처럼 말했습니다. 그는 욥에게 정통적인 교리, 즉 율법의 정통적인 가르침을 상기시켰습니다. 그리고 하나님의 징계를 통해 받는 유익에 대해 욥을 가르치기 시작했습니다. 
  • 엘리바스의 변론에 대한 요약: 욥이 성실하게 살아왔기 때문에 지금 겪고 있는 어떤 재앙도 그에게 일어나지 말았어야 했다. 그러나 재앙이 임했기 때문에 욥은 하나님을 찾고 용서를 구해야만 한다. 그는 욥에게 하나님의 징계하심 뒤에 많은 복이 뒤따를 것이라고 장담했다. 5:27절에서 그는 세 친구 모두를 대표해서 이렇게 말했다. 우리가 연구한 바가 이와 같으니 너는 들어 보라 그러면 네가 알리라.”

엘리바스의 신학은 아주 피상적인 것이었습니다. 그는 하나님의 방법을 이해하지 못했고, 욥이 경건한사람이라는 것을 믿을 수 없었습니다. 

은 (6:1) 자신의 생명이 숨결에 지나지 않으며, 그 영의 괴로움 속에서 말하고, 영혼의 괴로움 속에서불평할 것이라고 반응합니다. 그는 하나님께 경솔하게 말했으며, 자신의 말이 경건하지 못했을 수 있음을인정합니다. 그렇지만 그는 악한 말을 하지 않았다고 주장합니다. 그는 단지 하나님께 자신을 멸하시고 끊어 달라고 구했고, 왜 이처럼 참혹한 일들이 벌어졌는지 가르쳐 달라고 요청할 뿐이었습니다. 욥은 세 친구들 모두가 이 참혹한 일들을 두려워하고 있음을 넌지시 말합니다. 그들의 정돈된 정통의 틀로는 설명할 수없었기 때문입니다. (6:21)

욥은 하나님 앞에서 깨어진 마음이었지만 동시에 반항하기도 했습니다. 그는 7:11절에서  마음의 괴로움 때문에 불평하리이다라고 말합니다. 그는 하나님을 “사람을 감찰하시는 이” (7:20)로 부릅니다. 욥은시편 8편에 기록된 “사람이 무엇이기에 주께서 그를 생각하시며” 라는 말씀을 비틀어서 말합니다. 시편 8편에서 시편 기자는 하나님께서 자신을 낮추시고 인간을 그처럼 높이시는 것에 감탄합니다. 그러나 욥은 이시편을 잘못 사용하고 있으며, 또한 왜 하나님께서 매일 아침 찾아오셔서 매 순간 그를 시험하시는지 묻습니다. 욥은 하나님께 왜 자신이 어떤 죄를 지었든지 그 죄를 용서해주지 않으시는지 질문함으로써 그의 반론을 끝맺습니다.  

빌닷이 (8:1) 이제 이야기를 시작합니다. 

빌닷에 관해 주목할 내용들

  1. 빌닷은, 고난은 죄에 대한 하나님의 징계이며, 욥의 자녀들의 죽음은 그들이 죄를 지었다는 증거라고 믿습니다. 
  • 욥이 죽지 않았기 때문에 그의 죄는 그렇게 심각하지 않다고 생각했습니다. 그래서 그가 해야 할 일은 회개 뿐이며, 그러면 회복될 것이라고 믿었습니다. 그는 “또 청결하고 정직하면 반드시 너를 돌보시고 네의로운 처소를 평안하게 하실 것이라.” (8:6)고 말합니다. 8:4-6절에서의 빌닷의 말들은 비꼬는 말로 가득 차 있습니다.  
  • 빌닷은 욥과 그가 처한 상황에 대해 민감하지 못했습니다. 그가 말하는 것을 보면 충격적일 정도로 둔감했습니다. 그가 하는 모든 말들은 직설적이었고, “뿌린 대로 거둔다”는 말로 요약될 수 있습니다. 
  • 그는 하나님 앞에서 의인은 없다는 엘리바스의 말에 동의했습니다. 그렇지만 그리고 나서 그는 욥에게청결하고 정직해야만 한다고 이야기합니다. 
  • 그렇지만 빌닷은 소망으로 그의 변론을 마무리합니다. “웃음을 네 입에, 즐거운 소리를 네 입술에 채우시리니.” (21절)
  • 욥기에 나오는 빌닷의 세 번의 변론들은 그가 하나님에 대한 지식과 그가 일하는 방식에 대해 피상적인지식만을 가지고 있는 사람임을 드러냅니다. 그는 욥을 돕고자 했지만, 욥이 경건한 사람이라는 것을 믿을 수 없었기 때문에 그를 판단합니다. 

욥의 반론 (9:1-35)

욥은 여전히 강한 질문으로 반응합니다. 그는 무력감에 휩싸여 있고, 갇혀 있다고 느낍니다. 심지어 그는 하나님께서 자신을 멸하기 원하신다고 비난하기 시작합니다. 

그는 먼저 빌닷에게 대답합니다. (9:1-35) 빌닷을 향한 그의 첫마디는 냉소적인 말로 가득 찼습니다. “인생이 어찌 하나님 앞에 의로우랴? 사람이 하나님께 변론하기를 좋아할지라도 천 마디에 한 마디도 대답하지 못하리라.” (9:2-3) 그는 빌닷에게 “그가 내 앞으로 지나시나 내가 보지 못하며” (9:11)라고 말하면서그의 극심한 좌절감을 드러냅니다. 빌닷을 향한 욥의 가장 큰 질문은 이것이었습니다. “인생이 어찌 하나님앞에 의로우랴?”

그는 빌닷이 그의 질문에 답할 수 없다는 것을 알았습니다. 왜냐하면 그가 하나님께서 욥을 축복하기 위해 여기 계신 것이 아니라 고발하기 위해서 오셨다고 믿기 때문입니다. 그는 그가 옳았고 하나님이 틀렸을지라도, 하나님은 인간이 감히 대답할 수 없을 만큼 강하신 분이기 때문에 하나님께 대답할 수 없다고 말합니다. 하나님께서 완전히 지배하고 계시기 때문입니다. 그는 이렇게 말함으로써 결론을 맺습니다. “가령 내가 의로울지라도 대답하지 못하겠고 나를 심판하실 그에게 간구할 뿐이며” (9:15) 그는 이렇게 말하기까지했습니다. “가령 내가 그를 부르므로 그가 내게 대답하셨을지라도 내 음성을 들으셨다고는 내가 믿지 아니하리라.” (9:16)

욥의 고통은 자신이 의롭다 해도 하나님께서 그를 참소하고 계시다고 믿고 있는 것이었습니다. 하나님은 사람들처럼 이치를 따지며 설득할 수 있는 분이 아니시기 때문에 하나님을 부를 수 없었고, 그의 대답을기대할 수 없었습니다. 욥의 가장 큰 갈망은 그와 하나님 사이의 중재자 (mediator)가 임하는 것이었습니다. “하나님은 나처럼 사람이 아니신즉 내가 그에게 대답할 수 없으며 함께 들어가 재판을 할 수도 없고 우리 사이에 손을 얹을 판결자(arbiter/mediator)도 없구나.” (9:32-33)

히브리어 단어 “중재자” (mediator [mokiakh])는 재판관을 의미하지 않으며, 두 당사자 모두의 친구로서  양쪽 모두에게 손을 얹어서  화해하게 함으로써 분쟁을 해결하는 사람을 의미합니다. 한국어로는 판결자 대신에 중재자로 번역하는 것이 더 좋게 여겨집니다. [이것은 예수, 하나님과 사람 사이의 중보자이신예수님의 예표입니다.] 

욥이 중재자를 언급한 것은 이번이 처음이며, 우리는 후에 그가 이 주제를 발전시키고, 실제로 중재자가계심을 믿게 되는 것을 알게 될 것입니다.

생각해 볼 것들

1. 엘리바스를 어떻게 묘사하시겠습니까? 친구입니까? 조언자입니까? 신학자입니까? 엘리바스에 대한 욥의 반응을 어떻게 이해하십니까?

2. 빌닷의 변론에 대해 어떻게 평가하시겠습니까? 욥과 관련된 그의 어려움은 무엇이었습니까? 빌닷에대한 욥의 반응에서 그와 동일시할 수 있습니까?

3. 자신의 고난이나 세계의 고난에 대해 욥처럼 느꼈던 적이 있습니까? 북한에서 벌어지는 엄청난 고난이나 오늘날 세계 여러 나라의 그리스도인들이 당하는 극심한 핍박을 보면서, “하나님은 어디 계십니까?” “하나님은 왜 의인들을 위해 개입하지 않으십니까?”라고 질문해 보신 적이 있으십니까?

4. 오늘날 세상의 수많은 의인들이 받는 극심한 고난에 대해 어떻게 반응하셨습니까? 욥이 자신의 고난과 관련하여 “중재자”의 개념을 어떻게 이해했다고 생각하십니까?

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Job Lesson Two

 Job Lesson Two

Job 1:1—3:26

The Most Righteous Man of the East Is Attacked by Satan.

Job, the greatest of all the people of the East (1:1—5)

There was a man whose name was Job . . . 

His righteousness and faith were legendary. The prophet Ezekiel considered Job to be one of the most righteous men on earth, along with Noah and Daniel (Ezekiel 14:14). He was very wealthy, and he used his wealth to help those in need. He prayed for his ten children each morning, to protect them from sin that would turn them away from God. God saw his exemplary lifestyle and was pleased with His servant Job.

God allows Satan to test Job (1:6—12)

The Septuagint (Greek translation of the Old Testament) translates the “sons of God” as “angels.” Satan was among them. He is the adversary of God and of Job, as well as of all Christians. From the beginning, his aim was to destroy all followers of God. His supreme failure was his inability to destroy Jesus on the cross; now his purpose is to eliminate the Church, all followers of Jesus Christ. 

Today we know that Satan was behind all the calamities and unbearable suffering that Job endured. But Job did not know this, nor did his three friends who later came to console him. Job was unaware of Satan’s activity to destroy him.    

Satan was never in control of Job’s life. God was in total control. He took the initiative and asked Satan if he had ever considered His servant Job, that “there is none like him on the earth, a blameless and upright man, who fears God and turns away from evil.” (1:8) 

It is important to remember, as we study the Book of Job, how God described Job as a man who had the “fear of the Lord.” A person who has the fear of the Lord turns away from sin and evil and turns toward God. He hates what God hates, sin; and loves what God loves. Job himself understood the fear of the Lord and later says, “Behold, the fear of the Lord, that is wisdom, and to turn away from evil is understanding.” (28:28) Later, after Job has recovered from Satan’s attacks and repented of his sins, we will see the beauty of the fear of the Lord in his life, as the prophet Malachi described it in Malachi 3:16—4:3.

But God allows even those who have the fear of the Lord to be tested by Satan. The Lord allowed Satan to cause Job to suffer, but not to kill Job. So it becomes clear here in the first chapter that God was not punishing Job. Even today we tend to blame our suffering on God. We blame Him for catastrophes of nature, or plagues like the covid-19 virus, or other acts of evil. However, to fully understand God’s purpose in allowing Satan to punish Job so fully, we must remember that God had a higher purpose for Job, that would be fulfilled through suffering, which He would reveal at the end. We know the promise of Romans 8:28. “And we know that God causes all things to work together for good to those who love God, to those who are called according to His purpose (Romans 8:28 NASB) As we study the Book of Job, we will discover the beauty of what it means for God to work all things for good. God had already predestined for Job that he would “become conformed to the image of His Son!” (Romans 8:29 NASB) It will be helpful to remember Paul’s words in Romans 8:28-29 as we continue our study of Job.

Satan attacks and Job responds (1:13—22)

Satan destroyed Job’s family by removing his wealth and causing the deaths of his seven sons and three daughters. 

How did Job respond? He responded to the greatest tragedy he could have imagined, by the greatest act of faith. He fell on the ground and worshiped God! (1:20) “Naked I came from my mother’s womb, and naked I shall return there. The Lord gave, and the Lord has taken away; blessed be the name of the Lord.” (1:21) Job did not sin with his words, and he did not accuse God of doing something wrong. Later, we will see that Job’s response would confuse his three friends, for he did not fit into their orthodox theological framework. 

Job’s friends’ attitude is echoed in other wisdom literature. The Psalms tell us that if we trust in the Lord and do good, He will give us the desires of our heart. They promise that God will protect the faithful and punish the evil ones. But even in the Psalms, or other wisdom literature, we discover that God does not always follow a rigid orthodox pattern on blessing His people. He sometimes allows them to suffer. God never works outside His character, but He sometimes “works outside the box of rigid theology.” 

Satan’s Final Attack (2:1—10)

Satan’s final attack is on both Job and his wife. We can see from this final attack that Satan is not only a murderer; he is also the father of lies. He complains to God that Job still holds fast to his integrity, “although You incited me against him to destroy him without reason.” (2:3) God never gave Satan the power to destroy Job; He only says, “Behold, he is in your hand; only spare his life.” (2:6) 

Satan attacked Job’s body with boils, and became disfigured to the extent that his three friends could not even recognize him when they met him. Like the psalmist in Psalm 39, Job saw that his lifetime was as nothing before God. But in all these things Job did not sin with his mouth. 

Satan attacked Job’s wife by tempting her to tell Job to curse God and die. But we will see at the end that Job’s wife also was restored along with Job.

Job’s Three Friends (2:11—13)

Job’s three friends heard of Job’s suffering and came to offer him sympathy and comfort. They may have come from several different countries, since their nationalities are described here in chapter two. When they saw him they couldn’t recognize him, and they wept aloud. They sat down with Job on the ground for seven days and seven nights, and “no one spoke a word to him!” This was their greatest gift to Job, sitting in the stillness of God with him. They did not speak until Job spoke. They must have prayed for Job, for all prayer begins with silence in God’s presence. We will see later that God was with them; He blessed them, through the silence of His presence. God was silent; they were silent. God was with them.   

Job’s Lament (3:1—26)

Until now, Job has not spoken words of complaint. He has expressed his trust in God in spite of his suffering. But he is full of painful emotions, and he has found no relief in silence. So he opened his mouth and cursed the day of his birth. His first words were “Let the day perish on which I was born.” (3:3) 

Take some time now, here in chapter 3, to observe the great power of poetic expression that we will see throughout the book. Understanding the majestic poetic expressions, in our minds and in our hearts, will enable us to understand Job more deeply, and perhaps to even identify with him in some respects. As is true of all poetry, it should be read aloud. Take time now to read verses 1-10 aloud, slowly, with expression. 

Job wonders aloud why God did not just let him die at birth. His big question is “why.” Why was I born to suffer? Why does God not allow those in terrible agony and suffering to die? 

In 3:24-26, Job describes his condition. The two most essential elements for life, bread and water, have been replaced by his sighs. He says that the thing he fears has come upon him. Remember, he prayed each day for his children that no danger would come upon them. Perhaps he feared that one day a great calamity would come upon his family. Whatever he feared has now come upon him. Job is in utter despair, physically, emotionally and spiritually. Death is the only answer. But notice that he does not curse God; he curses the day he was born.

Some things to consider

1. How does the knowledge that Satan was never in control of Job’s life, but rather God was in total control, help you as you seek to understand the suffering of Job?

2. Have you ever experienced Satan’s attacks on your life, your family, or your ministry? If so, to what degree? Can you remember how you prayed? How did you overcome these attacks?

3. What is your first impression of Job’s three friends? What do you think happened in the seven days and seven nights of silence?

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욥기 재2과

욥기 제2과

욥기 1:1—3:26

동방에서 가장 의로운 사람이 사탄의 공격을 받다.

동방 사람 중에 가장 훌륭한  (1:1-5)

욥이라 불리는 사람이 있었는데 … 

그의 의와 믿음은 전설적이었습니다. 선지자 에스겔은 노아, 다니엘과 함께, 욥을 이 땅에서 가장 의로운 사람으로 여겼습니다. 그는 아주 큰 부자였고, 자신의 부를 도움이 필요한 사람들을 위해 돕는 데 사용했습니다. 그는 매일 아침 열 명의 자녀들이 하나님에게서 멀어지는 죄악에서 보호해 주시기를 기도했습니다. 하나님은 그의 모범적인 삶의 방식을 보셨고, 그의 종 욥으로 인해 기뻐하셨습니다. 

사탄이 욥을 시험하도록 하나님께서 허락하심 (1:6-12)

70인역 (구약의 헬라어 번역본)은 “하나님의 아들들”을 “천사들”로 번역합니다. 사탄은 그들 중에 있었습니다. 그는 하나님과 욥의 적일 뿐 아니라, 모든 그리스도인들의 적입니다. 태초부터 그의 목표는 하나님을 따르는 모든 사람들을 파멸시키는 것이었습니다. 그의 가장 큰 실패는 십자가에서 예수님을 멸망시킬 수없었던 것이었습니다. 이제 그의 목적은 그를 따르는 모든 사람 들, 곧 예수 그리스도의 교회를 제거하는 것입니다. 

오늘 우리는, 욥이 견뎌냈던 모든 재앙과 참을 수 없는 고난의 뒤에 사탄이 있었다는 것을 압니다. 그렇지만 욥은 물론 그를 위로하기 위해 찾아왔던 세 친구들도 그것을 알지 못했습니다. 욥은 그를 파멸시키려는 사탄의 활동을 알아채지 못했습니다. 

사탄은 욥의 삶을 장악하지 못했습니다. 그는 하나님께서 전적인 통제 아래 있었습니다. 하나님께서는먼저 사탄에게 그의 종 욥을 주목하여 본 적이 있는지 주도적으로 질문하시면서 이렇게 말씀하셨습니다. “그와 같이 온전하고 정직하여 하나님을 경외하며 악에서 떠난 자는 세상에 없느니라” (욥 1:8)

욥기를 공부할 때, 하나님께서 욥을 “하나님을 경외하는” 사람으로 어떻게 묘사하고 있는지 기억하는 것이 중요합니다. 하나님을 경외하는 사람은 죄악에서 돌이켜 하나님께로 향합니다. 그는 하나님께서 미워하시는 죄를 미워했고, 하나님께서 사랑하시는 것을 사랑했습니다. 욥 자신도 하나님을 경외하는 것을 이해하고 있었으며, 나중에 이렇게 말했습니다. “보라 주를 경외함이 지혜요 악을 떠남이 명철이니라” (28:28) 나중에 욥이 사탄의 공격에서 회복되고 죄를 회개하고 난 뒤에, 그의 삶에서 말라기 3:16-4:3절에서 선지자말라기가 묘사한 것과 같은, 주를 경외하는 아름다움을 보게 될 것입니다. 

그렇지만 하나님께서는 주를 경외하는 사람들조차도 사탄의 시험을 받도록 허락하십니다. 주님은 사탄이 욥에게 고난을 줄 수는 있어도 그를 죽이지는 못하게 하셨습니다. 그래서 여기 1장에서는 하나님께서 욥을 저주하지 않으셨다는 것이 더 명확해졌습니다. 오늘날에도 우리는 우리가 당하는 고난에 대해 하나님을원망하는 경향이 있습니다. 우리는 자연의 대재앙이나 코로나 바이러스 같은 전염병, 또는 세상에서 벌어지는 그 밖의 악한 행동들에 대해 하나님을 원망합니다. 그러나 사탄이 욥을 그토록 온전히 재앙을 내리도록허락했던 하나님의 목적을 완전히 이해하기 위해서, 우리는 욥을 향한 하나님의 더 큰 목적이 있었음을 기억해야만 합니다. 그것은 고난을 통해 성취될 것이며, 하나님께서는 마지막에 그것을 완전히 계시하실 것입니다.   

우리는 로마서 8:28절의 약속을 기억합니다. “우리가 알거니와 하나님을 사랑하는 자 곧 그의 뜻대로부르심을 입은 자들에게는 모든 것이 합력하여 선을 이루느니라.” (로마서 8:28) 욥기의 공부를 하면서 우리는 모든 것이 합력하여 선을 이루시는 하나님의 역사하심의 아름다움을 발견하게 될 것입니다. 하나님께서는 욥을 “그 아들의 형상을 본받게 하기 위하여” (로마서 8:29) 미리 정하셨습니다. 욥기 성경공부가 계속되는 동안 로마서 8:28-29절에 기록된 바울의 말을 기억하는 것이 도움이 될 것입니다.  

사탄의 공격과 욥의 반응 (1:13-22)

사탄은 욥의 재산을 없애고, 그의 일곱 아들과 세 딸의 죽게 함으로써 욥의 가족을 무너뜨렸습니다.  

욥은 어떻게 반응했을까요? 그는 상상할 수 없었던 가장 큰 비극에 대해 가장 위대한 믿음의 행동으로반응했습니다. 그는 땅에 엎드려 하나님을 예배했습니다! (1:20) “내가 모태에서 알몸으로 나왔사온즉 또한알몸이 그리로 돌아가올지라 주신 이도 여호와시요 거두신 이도 여호와시오니 여호와의 이름이 찬송을 받으실지니이다.” (1:21) 욥은 말로 범죄하지 않았고, 하나님이 잘못을 저질렀다다고 비난하지도 않았습니다. 나중에 우리는 욥의 반응이 그의 세 친구를 혼란스럽게 할 것임을 알게 될 것입니다. 그의 반응은 그들이 가진 정통 신학적 틀에 맞지 않았기 때문입니다.

욥의 친구들의 태도는 다른 지혜서에서도 그대로 드러납니다. 시편은 만일 우리가 주를 신뢰하고 선을행하면, 그가 우리 마음에 소원을 주실 것이라고 말합니다. 또한 하나님께서 신실한 자들을 보호하시고 악한 자들을 저주하실 것이라고 약속합니다. 그런데 시편에서도, 그리고 다른 지혜서에서도 우리는 하나님께서 그의 백성들을 축복하는 데 있어서 엄격하고 정통적인 패턴을 항상 따르지 않는다는 것을 발견하게 됩니다. 때로 하나님께서는 그들에게 고난을 허락하십니다. 하나님께서는 결코 그분의 성품을 벗어나서 일하지않으시지만, 때로는 “엄격한 신학의 틀 밖에서 역사하십니다.”

사탄의 마지막 공격 (2:1-10)

사탄의 마지막 공격은 욥과 그의 아내에게 동시에 임했습니다. 우리는 이 마지막 공격을 통해서 사탄이단지 살인자일 뿐 아니라 거짓의 아비라는 것을 알 수 있습니다. “네가 (사탄이) 나를 (하나님을) 충동하여까닭 없이 그를 (욥을) 치게 하였어도” (2:3) 욥이 여전히 정직함 가운데 굳건히 서 있는 것에 대해 사탄은하나님께 불평했습니다. 하나님께서는 사탄에게 욥을 멸할 권능을 주신 적이 없으십니다. 그에게 이렇게 말씀하셨을 뿐입니다. “내가 그를 네 손에 맡기노라 다만 그의 생명은 해하지 말지니라.” (2:6)

사탄은 욥의 몸에 종기가 나게 해서 그를 공격했고, 그의 세 친구들이 욥을 만났을 때는 그를 알아볼 수없을 정도로 몸이 상해 있었습니다. 시편 39편에서의 시편 기자의 모습처럼, 욥은 하나님 앞에서 그의 일생이 주 앞에 없는 것과 같았음을 보았습니다. 그렇지만 이 모든 일들 속에서도 욥은 그의 입으로 범죄하지 않았습니다. 

사탄은 욥의 아내를 격동시켜서 욥에게 하나님을 저주하고 죽으라고 말하게 했습니다. 그러나 우리는결국 욥의 아내 또한 욥과 함께 회복되는 것을 보게 됩니다. 

욥의  친구들

욥의 세 친구들은 욥의 고난을 듣고 그를 위문하고 위로하기 위해 찾아왔습니다. 여기 2장에서 그들의국적이 묘사된 것으로 보아 그들은 다른 여러 나라에서 온 것으로 보입니다. 그들이 욥을 보았을 때 그를 알아볼 수 없었고, 그래서 큰 소리로 울었습니다. 그들은 욥과 함께 땅에 앉아서 칠일 밤낮을 함께 있었습니다. 그리고 “한 마디도 말하는 사람이 없었습니다!” 욥과 함께 하나님의 고요하심 가운데 앉아 있는 것은 욥에게 가장 큰 선물이었습니다. 그들은 욥이 말할 때까지 말하지 않았습니다. 그들은 욥을 위해 기도했을 것입니다. 왜냐하면 모든 기도는 하나님의 임재 안에 있는 침묵에서 시작되기 때문입니다. 우리는 후에 하나님께서 그들과 함께 계셨음을 보게 됩니다. 하나님은 그분의 임재의 침묵을 통해 그들을 축복하셨습니다. 하나님은 잠잠히 계셨고, 그들은 침묵했습니다. 하나님께서는 그들과 함께 계셨습니다. 

욥의 애가 (3:1-26)

이 때까지 욥은 원망의 말을 하지 않았습니다. 그는 고난에도 불구하고 하나님을 향한 신뢰를 표현했습니다. 그렇지만 고통의 감정이 그에게 가득 찼고, 침묵 속에서 어떤 안도감도 찾지 못했습니다. 그래서 그는입을 열어 자신의 출생을 저주했습니다. 그가 내뱉은 첫 번째 말은 “내가 난 날이 멸망하였더라면” (3:3)이었습니다. 

이제 잠시 시간을 두고 여기 3장에서 이 책 전체에 걸쳐 우리가 볼 수 있는 시적인 표현의 위대한 힘에대해 살펴보시기 바랍니다. 우리의 마음과 생각 속에서 이 웅장한 시적 표현을 이해하는 것은 우리가 욥을더 깊이 이해할 수 있게 해 줄 것입니다. 그리고 어떤 면에서는 그와 동일시하는 데까지 이를 수 있을 것입니다. 모든 시가 그렇듯이 이 장은 큰 소리로 읽어야 합니다. 이제 1-10절까지를 큰 소리로, 천천히, 표현하면서 읽어 보십시오. 

욥은 그가 태어날 때 하나님께서 왜 그를 그냥 죽도록 내버려 두지 않으셨는지 궁금하다고 큰소리로 질문했습니다. 그의 가장 큰 질문은 “왜”였습니다. 왜 나는 고통받기 위해 태어났습니까? 하나님은 왜 끔찍한괴로움과 고난에 처한 사람들이 죽는 것을 허락하지 않으십니까?

3:24-26절에서 욥은 그의 상태를 설명합니다. 삶에서 가장 큰 두 가지 요소인 음식과 물은 탄식으로 바뀌었습니다. 그가 두려워하는 것이 그에게 임했다고 말했습니다. 그가 매일 자녀들에게 어떤 위험도 닥치지않도록 기도했다는 것을 기억하십시오. 아마도 그는 어느 날엔가는 엄청난 재앙이 그의 가족에게 임할 것을두려워했는지도 모릅니다. 그가 두려워했던 것이 무엇이었든지 이제 그것이 그에게 임했습니다. 욥은 육체적, 감정적, 영적으로 완전한 낙망 가운데 있었습니다. 죽음만이 유일한 답이었습니다. 그렇지만, 욥이 하나님을 저주하지 않았다는 것에 주목하십시오. 욥은 그가 태어난 날을 저주했습니다.  

생각해 볼 것들

1. 사탄이 욥의 삶을 절대로 장악할 수 없으며, 하나님의 완전한 통제 아래 있었다는 사실이 우리가 욥의 고난을 이해하려는 데 어떤 도움을 줍니까?

2. 우리의 삶, 가정, 그리고 사역에 대한 사탄의 공격을 경험해 본 적이 있습니까? 만일 그렇다면 어느정도였습니까? 어떻게 기도했는지 기억하실 수 있습니까? 이러한 공격들을 어떻게 이겨내셨습니까?

3. 욥의 세 친구들에 대한 첫인상은 무엇입니까? 침묵으로 보냈던 칠일 밤낮 동안 무슨 일이 있었다고생각하십니까?

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To all who are studying the Book of Job. Please watch and listen to this wonderful JOB SUITE by Michael Card. https://youtu.be/P7XVS1VlzHc

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Job Lesson One

Job Lesson One

Background and Structure of the Book of Job

You have already read through the Book of Job, so you have some understanding of what the book is all about. In this lesson, we will seek to understand something of the background of the book and its basic structure. This will give us the tools to help us understand the message of this book. Remember! Keep reading through the book; spend some time meditating on some of the key verses that you discover.                              

Background of the Book of Job

Who was Job?

Job was an actual historic person. Both the Old and New Testaments speak of Job as a man who actually lived.

  • Job 1:1
  • Ezekiel 14:13-14; 14:19-20 mentions Job as a righteous man, along with Noah and Daniel.
  • James 5:11 mentions Job. “. . . You have heard of the perseverance of Job and seen the end intended by the Lord, that the Lord is very compassionate and merciful.”

When did Job live? 

The Hebrew Bible tells us that Job lived to be over 200 years old; the Greek Septuagint version even says that he lived 248 years. He was probably not as old as those who lived before Noah’s flood, but he was as old as many of the patriarchs before the Exodus. Job lived before the birth of the nation of Israel, before the Abrahamic and Sinai covenants.

Job chapter 1 tells us that the Chaldeans raided Job’s servants. The Chaldeans later became the Babylonians, a mighty empire; but at this time they were still a nomadic people. Job may have lived about the same time as Joseph, in the early stages of his captivity. 

Job 1:1 tells us that Job lived in the land of Uz, “in the East.” Genesis 10:23 says that one of the sons of Shem was named Uz. This was a proper name, but it is possible that the area in which he lived came to be known as Uz. Most scholars think that this area was northeast of the Sea of Galilee.

Who wrote the Book of Job and when did he write it?

The book is written as a direct revelation from God, which means that the author spoke prophetically. The Bible does not say that he was a prophet, but he spoke prophetically. 

Who wrote it?

  • Job himself? If he wrote it, then this book is the oldest book of the Bible. But there is no evidence that he himself wrote it.
  • Moses? Many people think this because Job probably lived during the patriarchal period. But there is no evidence for this.
  • Solomon? The Book of Job is wisdom literature, and wisdom flourished during the time of Solomon. But there is no evidence for this.
  • Jeremiah? Some think that Jeremiah may have written the book because Jeremiah included a lament in his writings that is very similar to Job’s lament: “Cursed be the day that I was born!” (Jeremiah 20:14-18) He even says “Woe is me, my mother, that you bore me, a man of strife and contention to the whole land! I have not lent, nor have I borrowed, yet all of them curse me.” (Jeremiah 15:10) He also complained to the Lord: “Righteous are You, O Lord, when I complain to You; yet I will plead my case before You. Why does the way of the wicked prosper?” (Jeremiah 12:1) 

Yet there is an important difference between Job’s suffering and that of Jeremiah. Job was living a very happy, self-satisfied life when tragedy struck him. Jeremiah, on the other hand, knowingly accepted suffering when he responded to God’s call to become a prophet. Job complained about his personal tragedy; Jeremiah complained about his nation’s tragedy. Jeremiah would have understood Job very well, but there is no clear evidence that he wrote it.

No one knows who wrote this book. Most scholars of Job admit that they do not know who wrote it, or even when it was written.

Then what do we know?

We know that God gave the world this majestic book to teach us about His steadfast, unending love and Job’s persistent and enduring faith in a time of great suffering. The Book of Job deals with one of the greatest philosophical and religious questions ever asked. Why do innocent people, righteous people suffer? God Himself said that Job was blameless and upright, one who feared God and shunned evil. So why did Job suffer so greatly? 

  • Philosophy cannot answer the problem of suffering. Socrates was one of the greatest philosophers, but he could not solve the problem of suffering; all he could say was something he had read as an inscription on a temple: “Know yourself.” Socrates had a deep knowledge of man, and he was able to reveal the fact that lying beneath the superficial knowledge we have is a profound ignorance of our origin and destiny. Philosophers have contributed greatly to our understanding of the meaning of life, but they cannot know the mind of man.     
  • Religion cannot answer the problem of suffering. Buddhism has dealt with the problem of suffering more than any other religion except Christianity. Buddha discovered that we are bound by the prison of our ego, which creates anxiety that causes deep suffering. He taught us how to get rid of our ego, but could not provide the solution to the problem of suffering. Neither philosophy nor religion has the answer to why the righteous suffer.

Job himself persistently asked the question “why.” Is there a merciful God? Does He answer the question of suffering? Job did not  find the intellectual answer to his question of “why.” But he did find the solution that goes far beyond the question “why.” 

Structure of the Book of Job

Job chapters 1 and 2

  • Chapters 1 and 2 are written in prose; the remainder of the book is written in poetry, except for the last section of chapter 42. Notice who the Bible says Job was, and how Satan attacked him. As you read through the text, ask some questions; then answer them from what you are reading. Satan’s purpose was to destroy Job, along with his family and his great fortune. Begin thinking about what God’s purpose was in allowing Satan to attack Job this way. Keep in mind the apostle James’ comment about God’s intention for Job: “. . . You have heard of the perseverance of Job and seen the end intended by the Lord, that the Lord is very compassionate and merciful.” (James 5:11)
  • Chapter 2 concludes with the account of Job’s 3 friends coming to comfort him. They were so overwhelmed at the extent of Job’s sufferings that they sat down on the ground with Job for seven days and seven nights, and spoke not a word.

Job chapters 3—37 

This largest section of the book is written in poetic style. It is a poetic masterpiece; it is difficult to find poetic expression greater than the Book of Job. Take time to read the poetry slowly. You will need to allow God to use your imagination to enable you to enter into this dialogue of Job and his friends. You will notice at the end of their dialogue that a young man, Elihu, suddenly appears and gives a long argument (chapters 32—37). So there are 5 men who speak in the main body of the book: Job, Eliphaz, Bildad, Zophar, and Elihu.

Job chapters 38—41 

God suddenly appears in a whirlwind and silences all 5 of the speakers. God does not answer Job’s question of “why.” He simply appears in His great majesty and silences everyone.

Job chapter 42

This is the conclusion to the book. Job’s eyes are opened; he has an “epiphany” of God. Until now, Job only knew about God; but now he meets God face to face and repents. God is not angry with Job, even though he complained and doubted. Instead, He is angry with Job’s 3 friends. God restores Job; He also restores Job’s 3 friends, but only after Job prays for them. Job discovered that there is no philosophical or religious answer to the question of suffering. God Himself is the Answer.   

Some things to consider

1. What are some things you have discovered as you come to understand the structure and background of the book?

2. Has praying the Lord’s Prayer as you study helped you in understanding this book? In what ways? 

Note on the Lord’s Prayer Walter Ciszek (1904-1984) was a Polish-American Jesuit priest who spent twenty-three years in the Soviet prisons and labor camps of Siberia. He discovered an important key that enabled him to retain his hope in the midst of his suffering. He began to understand the way he should pray. “Lord, teach us how to pray,” the disciples said. Jesus then taught them to pray what we today call “The Lord’s Prayer.” Let’s listen to how Fr. Ciszek described this prayer:

“Jesus begins by placing us in the presence of God: God the almighty, who has created all things out of nothingness and keeps them in existence lest they return to nothingness, who rules all things and governs all things in the heavens and on earth according to the designs of His own providence. And yet the same all-powerful God is our Father, who cherishes us and looks after us as His sons [and daughters], who provides for us in His own loving kindness, who guides us in His wisdom, who watches over us daily to shelter us from harm, to provide us food, and to receive us back with open arms when we, like the prodigal, have wasted our inheritance. Even as a father guards his children, He guards us from evil—because evil does exist in the world. And just as He can find it in His Father’s heart to pardon us, He expects us to imitate Him in pardoning His other sons and daughters, no matter what their offenses. 

“The [Lord’s Prayer] is a prayer of praise and thanksgiving, a prayer of petition and of reparation . . . it is a prayer for all times, for every occasion. It is at once the most simple of prayers and the most profound . . . if one could only translate each of its phrases into the actions of his daily life, then he would indeed be perfect as His heavenly Father clearly wishes him to be. Truly, the Lord’s Prayer is the beginning and end of all prayers, the key to every other form of prayer. 

“If we could constantly live in the realization that we are sons of a heavenly Father, that we are always in His sight and play in His creation, then all our thoughts and our every action would be a prayer . . . And every true prayer begins precisely here: placing oneself in the presence of God.

3. What does the conclusion of the book tell you about God’s original intention for Job? How does this help you understand where God is, and what He does, in the midst of the suffering of righteous people around the world? Or in the midst of your own suffering?

Remember:

* Try to remember the structure of the book as you continue your study. This will help you sense the movement of the story. It will also help you look back at what you have studied and know what to expect as you continue.

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* Make a decision to study the Book of Job with a shepherd’s heart. That means you will not be studying just to accumulate knowledge; rather, you will be studying with a heart to help others who may be suffering or who do not understand the ways of God. You will be an encourager for many people. If you study with a shepherd’s heart, the Holy Spirit will reveal more truth to you. May God bless you as you ask the Holy Spirit to enlarge your heart for the world.

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Job Lesson 1

욥기 제1과
욥기의 배경 및 구조

이미 욥기를 읽으셨다면, 이 책이 무엇을 말하는 것이 무엇인지에 대한 이해를 가지고 계실 것입니다. 이 과에서 우리는 이 책의 배경에 대한 이해와 기본적인 구조에 대해서 살펴보게 될 것입니다. 이렇게 하는 것은 이 책이 말하는 메시지를 이해하는 데 도움을 줄 수 있는 도구를 우리에게 제공할 것입니다. 계속해서 욥기를 읽는 것을 잊지 마십시오! 읽으면서 발견하는 몇몇 핵심 구절들을 묵상하는 시간을 보내십시오.

욥기의 배경
욥은 어떤 사람이었는가?
욥은 역사상의 실제 인물이었습니다. 구약과 신약 모두에서 욥이 실제로 살았던 사람이라는 것을 말하고 있습니다.
• 욥기 1:1
• 에스겔 14:13-14; 14:19-20절은 욥을 노아와 다니엘과 같은, 의로운 사람이라고 언급합니다.
• 야고보서 5:11절에 욥이 언급되고 있습니다. “… 너희가 욥의 인내를 들었고 주께서 주신 결말을 보았거니와 주는 가장 자비하시고 긍휼히 여기시는 이시니라.”

욥은 언제 살았는가?
히브리 성경은 욥이 200년 넘게 살았다고 말합니다. 그리고 헬라어 70인역에서는 그가 248세까지 살았다고 이야기합니다. 그는 아마도 노아의 홍수 이전에 살았던 사람들만큼은 아니지만, 출애굽 이전의 족장들만큼 오래 살았던 것으로 보입니다. 욥은 이스라엘 민족이 탄생하기 전, 아브라함의 언약과 시내산 언약 이전 시기에 살았습니다.

욥기 1장은 갈대아 사람들이 욥의 종들을 급습했다고 이야기합니다. 갈대아 사람들은 후에 강한 제국 바벨론이 되었습니다. 그런데 이때 그들은 여전히 유목 민족이었습니다. 욥은 요셉과 거의 같은 시기, 곧 그가 종으로 팔려갔던 초창기에 살았던 것으로 보입니다.

욥기 1:1절은 욥이 “동방의” 우스 땅에 살고 있었다고 전해줍니다. 창세기 10:23절은 우스가 셈의 아들들 중 하나의 이름이라는 것을 말하고 있습니다. 우스라는 이름은 고유명사였지만 그가 살았던 지역이 우스라고 알려졌을 가능성이 있습니다. 대부분의 학자들은 이 지역을 갈릴리 바다의 북동쪽에 있었다고 생각합니다.

욥기의 저자는 누구이며, 언제 기록되었는가?
이 책은 하나님의 직접적인 계시로 기록되었으며, 그것은 저자가 예언적으로 말했다는 것을 의미합니다. 성경은 저자가 선지자라고 말하지는 않지만 그는 예언적으로 말했습니다.

누가 기록했는가?
• 욥 자신일까? 만일 그가 기록했다면 이 책은 성경에서 가장 오래 된 책일 것입니다. 그렇지만 욥이 직접 기록했다는 증거는 없습니다.
• 모세일까? 많은 사람들이 이렇게 생각하는 이유는 욥이 족장시대에 살았을 것으로 여겨지기 때문입니다. 그렇지만 그가 썼다는 증거는 없습니다.
• 솔로몬일까? 욥기는 지혜문학이며, 지혜서는 솔로몬 시기에 번성했습니다. 그렇지만 이것에 대한 증거도 없습니다.
• 예레미야일까? 어떤 사람들은 예레미야가 욥기를 썼을 것이라고 생각합니다. 그 이유는 예레미야가 쓴 책 중에 욥의 애가와 아주 비슷한 애가가 포함되어 있기 때문입니다. “내 생일이 저주를 받았다면!” (예레미야 20:14-18) 그는 심지어 “내게 재앙이로다 나의 어머니여 어머니께서 나를 온 세계에 다투는 자와 싸우는 자를 만날 자로 낳으셨도다 내가 꾸어 주지도 아니하였고 사람이 내게 꾸이지도 아니하였건마는 다 나를 저주하는도다” (예레미야 15:10)이라고까지 말했습니다. 그는 또한 여호와 하나님께 이렇게 원망했습니다. “여호와여 내가 주와 변론할 때에는 주께서 의로우시니이다 그러나 내가 주께 질문하옵나니 악한 자의 길이 형통하며 반역한 자가 다 평안함은 무슨 까닭이니이까” (예레미야 12:1)
그러나 욥과 예레미야의 고난 사이에는 중요한 차이점이 있습니다. 욥에게 비극이 닥쳤을 때 그는 매우 행복하고 자기 만족스러운 삶을 살고 있었습니다. 반면에 예레미야는 선지자가 되라는 하나님의 부르심을 받았을 때 고난을 받게 될 것을을 알고도 그것을 받아들였습니다. 욥은 개인적인 비극에 대해 하나님께 원망했지만, 예레미야는 국가적인 비극에 대해 원망했습니다. 예레미야는 욥은 잘 이해했을 것이지만 그가 욥기를 기록했다는 명확한 증거는 없습니다.
아무도 누가 이 책을 기록했는지 모릅니다. 대부분의 욥기 연구자들은 누가 기록했고, 언제 기록되었는지조차 모른다는 것을 인정합니다.

그렇다면 우리가 알 수 있는 것은 무엇인가?
우리는 하나님께서 그의 굳건하고 끝없는 사랑과 큰 고난의 때에 욥이 보여준 끈질기고 지속적인 믿음에 대해 가르치기 위해 이 장엄한 책을 세상에 주셨다는 것을 압니다. 욥기는 지금까지 제기된 가장 위대한 철학적이고 종교적인 질문 가운데 하나를 다루고 있습니다. 죄 없고 의로운 사람들이 고난을 받습니까? 하나님께서 직접 욥을 흠 없고 정직하며 하나님을 경외하고 악에서 떠난 사람이라고 말씀하셨습니다. 그렇다면 왜 욥은 그처럼 엄청난 고난을 받았을까요?

• 철학은 고난의 문제에 대답할 수 없습니다. 소크라테스는 위대한 철학자 중에 한 사람이었지만, 고난의 문제를 해결할 수 없었습니다. 그가 할 수 있었던 것은 성전의 비문에 새겨진 “너 자신을 알라.”는 말을 읽는 것뿐이었습니다. 소크라테스는 인간에 대한 깊은 지식을 가지고 있었고, 우리가 가지고 있는 피상적인 지식 아래에 누워있는 것이 인간의 기원과 운명에 대한 깊은 무지라는 사실을 밝힐 수 있었습니다. 철학자들은 삶의 의미를 이해하는 데 크게 기여했지만, 사람의 생각을 알 수는 없었습니다.
• 종교는 고난의 문제에 대해 해답을 줄 수 없습니다. 불교는 기독교를 제외하고 다른 어떤 종교들보다 더 고난의 문제를 다루고 있습니다. 부처는 우리가 깊은 고난의 원인이 되는 불안을 만들어내는 자아의 감옥에 매여 있다는 것을 발견했습니다. 그는 우리에게 자아를 없애고 비울 수 있는 방법을 가르쳤지만 고난의 문제에 대한 해결책을 주지는 못했습니다. 철학이나 종교 모두 왜 의로운 사람이 고난을 받는가에 대한 해답을 줄 수 없습니다.

욥은 스스로에게 끈질기게 “왜?”라는 질문을 던졌습니다. 자비로우신 하나님이 계신 것입니까? 고난에 대한 질문에 그분은 응답하십니까? 욥은 “왜”라는 질문에 대한 지식적인 답을 찾지 않았습니다. 그 대신 그는 “왜”라는 질문 훨씬 너머에 있는 해결책을 찾았습니다.

욥기의 구조
욥기 1- 2장

• 1장과 2장은 산문으로 쓰였고, 42장의 마지막 부분을 제외한 이 책의 나머지 부분은 시로 기록되어 있습니다. 성경이 욥을 어떤 사람으로 말하고 있으며, 사탄이 어떻게 그를 공격했는지에 주목하십시오. 본문을 읽으면서 질문을 해 보십시오. 그리고 나서 읽는 동안 그 답을 찾아보십시오. 사탄의 목적은 욥은 물론 그의 가족과 그의 엄청난 재산을 파멸시키는 것이었습니다. 하나님께서 사탄으로 하여금 욥을 이런 방식으로 공격하도록 허락하신 목적이 무엇이었는지를 생각해 보십시오. 욥을 향한 하나님의 의도에 대해 사도 야고보가 언급함 것을 염두에 두십시오. “… 너희가 욥의 인내를 들었고 주께서 주신 결말을 보았거니와 주는 가장 자비하시고 긍휼히 여기시는 이시니라” (야고보서 5:11)
• 2 장은 욥을 위로하기 위해 오는 세 친구의 이야기로 끝을 맺습니다. 그들은 욥이 겪는 고통에 압도되어 7 일 밤낮으로 욥과 함께 바닥에 앉아 아무 말도 하지 않았습니다.

욥기 3-37장
욥기의 가장 많은 부분은 시의 형태로 기록되어 있습니다. 시적인 걸작이라 할 수 있으며, 욥기보다 더 훌륭한 시적인 표현을 찾기 어려울 정도입니다. 천천히 시를 읽는 시간을 보내십시오. 하나님께서 여러분이 가진 상상력을 사용해서 욥과 그의 친구들의 대화에 들어가게 하실 수 있도록 우리를 내어드려야 할 것입니다. 대화의 마지막 부분에서 청년 엘리후가 갑자기 나타나 긴 논쟁을 벌이는 것을 알게 될 것입니다 (32-37 장). 이 책의 본문에서는 5명의 남자들이 이야기를 하고 있으며, 그들의 이름은 욥, 엘리바스, 빌닷, 소발, 엘리후입니다.

욥기 38-41장
하나님께서 갑자기 폭풍우 가운데 등장하셔서 대화를 이어가던 5명을 잠잠하게 하십니다. 하나님은 “왜”라는 욥의 질문에 답을 주시지 않습니다. 큰 위엄 가운데 자신을 드러내시고 모든 사람들을 잠잠케 하셨습니다.

욥기 42장
이 장은 욥기의 결론입니다. 욥의 눈이 뜨였고 하나님의 “출현”하심 (epiphany)을 보았습니다. 이제까지 욥은 하나님에 대해 알기만 했지만 이제 그는 하나님과 대면하게 되었고 회개했습니다. 하나님은 욥이 의심하고 원망했음에도 그에게 화를 내지 않으å셨습니다. 그대신에 욥의 세 친구들에게 노하셨습니다. 하나님은 욥을 회복시키셨습니다. 욥의 세 친구 또한 회복시키셨지만 그것은 욥이 그들을 위해 기도한 뒤였습니다. 욥은 고난에 대한 질문에 대해 철학적이거나 종교적인 답이 없다는 것을 발견했습니다. 하나님 자신이 바로 그 응답입니다.

몇 가지 생각해 볼 것들
1. 이 책의 구조와 배경을 이해하게 되면서 발견하게 된 것들은 무엇입니까?
2. 주기도문으로 기도하는 것이 이 책을 이해하는 데 도움을 주었습니까? 어떤 면에서 도움이 되었습니까?

참고: 월터 치제크 (Walter Cizek, 1904-1984)는 소련의 감옥과 시베리아의 수용소에서 23년을 보낸 폴란드계 미국인 예수회 신부였습니다.
치제크 신부는 고난 속에서도 소망을 간직할 수 있게 해 주는 중요한 열쇠를 발견했습니다. 그는 어떻게 기도해야 하는지 이해하기 시작했습니다. “주여, 기도를 가르쳐 주옵소서.”라고 제자들이 말했고, 그러자 예수님은 우리가 오늘날 “주기도문”이라고 부르는 기도를 가르치셨습니다. 치제크 신부는 주님이 가르쳐 주신 기도를 다음과 같이 묘사했습니다.
“예수님께서는 우리를 하나님의 임재 앞에 두시는 것으로 시작하십니다. 아무 것도 없는 데서 만물을 창조하시고 다시 공허하게 돌아가지 않도록 지키시는 전능하신 하나님은 만유를 다스리시며 하늘과 땅의 모든 만물들을 그분의 섭리로 계획하십니다. 그러나 바로 그 전능하신 하나님이 우리 아버지이시며, 우리를 소중히 여기시고 그의 아들과 [딸로] 돌보시며, 그분의 인자하심으로 우리에게 공급하시고, 위험으로부터 우리를 안전하게 지키시고 날마다 보호하십니다. 우리에게 양식을 주시고, 탕자와 같이 우리의 유업을 낭비했을 때 팔을 벌려 우리를 받아 주십니다. 세상에 악이 존재하기 때문에 아버지가 그 자식을 지키는 것처럼 악으로부터 우리를 보호하십니다. 그리고 우리를 용서하시기 위해 아버지의 마음 안에서 우리를 찾아내신 것처럼, 다른 아들과 딸들의 죄가 무엇이든 간에 우리가 그들을 용서하기를 원하십니다.
“[주기도문]은 찬양과 감사의 기도이며, 탄원과 보상의 기도입니다… 또한 모든 시대, 모든 상황을 위한 기도입니다. 그리고 가장 단순하면서 가장 심오한 기도입니다. 만일 어떤 사람이 주기도문 각각의 구절들을 그의 일상생활의 행동으로 옮길 수만 있다면, 그는 하늘 아버지께서 그에게 바라시는 바로 그 모습으로 완전히 변하게 될 것입니다. 참으로, 주기도문은 모든 기도의 시작과 끝이며, 모든 다른 형태의 기도의 열쇠입니다.
“만일 우리가 우리가 하늘 아버지의 자녀라는 깨달음 속에서 끊임없이 살 수 있고, 항상 그분의 눈 앞에서 그의 창조하심 안에서 행한다면, 우리의 모든 생각과 행동은 기도가 될 것입니다… 그리고 모든 진정한 기도자들은 바로 “하나님의 임재 안에 자신을 두게 될 것.”에서 시작할 것입니다.

3. 이 책의 결론이 욥을 향한 하나님의 의도에 대해 무엇을 말해줍니까? 이것은 전 세계에서 의로운 사람들의 고난, 또는 우리들 자신의 고난 가운데 하나님께서 어디 계시며 무엇을 하고 계시는지 이해하는 데 어떻게 도움을 줍니까?

기억해야 할 것:
* 공부를 계속 하는 동안 욥기의 구조를 기억하도록 노력하십시오. 이것은 이야기의 움직임을 감지하는 데 도움이 될 것입니다. 뿐만 아니라 무엇을 공부했는지 돌아보고, 계속해서 공부하는 동안 무엇을 기대하는지 알게 하는 데 도움을 줄 것입니다.
* 목자의 마음으로 욥기를 공부기로 결정하십시오. 그것은 이 성경공부가 단지 지식을 축적하기 위한 것이 아니라, 오히려 고난 중에 있는 다른 사람들이나 하나님의 방식에 대해서 이해하지 못하는 사람들을 돕고자 하는 마음으로 공부하게 될 것임을 의미합니다. 여러분은 많은 사람들의 격려자가 될 것입니다. 만일 목자의 마음으로 공부한다면, 성령님께서 더 많은 진리를 계시하실 것입니다. 성령님께서 세상을 향한 우리의 마음을 확장시켜 주시기를 구할 때 하나님께서 여러분을 축복해 주시기를 기도합니다.

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