Seed of the Word of God

(I’m not sure of all the sources of this article – some of it is mine, some parts I borrowed; but it helps us understand the Christmas miracle.)

[Suggested reading: Luke 1:26-45] 

As we approach the last Sunday  of Advent, we think of Mary, the Mother of Jesus. A humble, ordinary country girl, her life was turned upside down by a visit from the angel Gabriel. She was about 13 years old, possibly as old as 15, inexperienced in the world and not able to fully understand what was happening. Yet her response to the angel’s message reveals a deep spiritual maturity and an emotional stability far beyond her young age.

Gabriel greeted her by calling her the “favored one,” greatly blessed by God. This alone shocked her, but when he informed her that she was to bear the seed of Jesus Christ, the Word of the Father (see Hebrews 1:1-2), her surprise and fear became greater. She wanted to run away as far as she could to avoid what this would mean. At the time, all young Jewish girls dream, romantically of course, of becoming the “mother of the Messiah;” but it only happened to one little girl, Mary!

The angel told her that the Holy Spirit would plant the seed of Jesus, the Messiah, in her womb  and that she would bear a son without human intervention. The shocking news was that the Kingdom of God would be inaugurated in her young, trembling, but receptive body!

Here is the greatest gift ever given to a human: to conceive and give birth to Jesus Christ, the only Son of God. The Virgin Birth stands at the heart of the fundamental miracle of Christmas. God chose to enter the world directly, through the body of one young girl. Divine Intervention, with no sin! And we begin to see already, at Christmastime, the cross and resurrection of Jesus, who came and died, and rose again, that sinful human beings can be reborn directly through the Spirit of God!

Everything depended on Mary’s response to the angel. He told her that nothing is impossible with God, and she replied, “I am the servant of the Lord; let it be to me according to your word!”

Here is a call to allow Mary to teach us how to celebrate Christmas! Surrender to God in everything! My abilities? They are not the important thing. I simply offer my full obedience to God and say, “Everything is Yours, Lord; everything is from You and is for You!” God alone can, and will regulate and direct all affairs of our lives. What must I do? Simply BE! Surrender all to God!

Mary’s “Amen!” to God was the beginning of a life of great suffering. But this was her glory, if only God’s will could be done in her life. This Christmas let us welcome the Kingdom of God, God’s rule over every aspect of our lives! And let us open ourselves to embrace Jesus Christ. Amen! Come, Lord Jesus! 

The Seed is the Word – each word of God is a “seed” that His Holy Spirit wants to plant in us.

Let it be to me according to Your Word. The key to a holy life that blesses the world.

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Job Lesson Nine

Job 32:1—37:24

A Strange Young Man Opens the Door to God

Elihu enters the conversation. Job 32:1—37:24

Chapter 31 ended with the words “the words of Job are ended.” (31:40) But the words of God are not ended. God begins His words to Job by first sending a young man to speak to both Job and his friends. We will hear more of his words in today’s study.

The young man Elihu appears suddenly, and then disappears just as suddenly. The Bible does not speak of Elihu anywhere outside the Book of Job; He is identified as the son of Barachel, who is also unknown, other than the fact that he is a Buzite of the family of Ram. (32:2) Elihu’s name means “my God” – the Lord is my God. Perhaps God sent him as a “voice in the wilderness” to prepare for the way of the Lord. Indeed this was his one contribution to the argument, for while Elihu was still speaking, the Lord Himself suddenly appeared to Job out of the whirlwind.

Over the period of six chapters, Elihu gives four speeches. Perhaps we should say he gives one speech with four different emphases. But we will analyze his words as four speeches.

Job 32—33 Elihu’s First Speech

Elihu begins his first speech by speaking about himself and his authority to speak. He begins with anger at Job because he justified himself rather than God; then he turns his anger on the three friends because they judged Job without finding an answer to his suffering. 

He speaks of the limitations of human wisdom but seems to forget that his own wisdom is limited. He does speak truth, especially when he says that all wisdom comes from the breath, or Spirit, of God. (32:8) But he is not altogether humble when he says that he is full of wisdom. His words were, “For I am full of words; the spirit (Spirit) within me constrains me.” (32:18) But we must remember that Elihu did not come to make friends; he came with a burning passion to defend God from the criticism and false statements Job and his three friends were making about God. In this sense, Elihu’s anger was righteous anger. He is not too humble, but he is rational.

Elihu directs the last part of his first speech to Job. He speaks more gently to Job and tells him “I desire to justify you.” (33:32) He tries to identify with Job and assures him that God is speaking to him in the midst of his suffering, and that if Job would stop criticizing God and instead would pray to God, then God would forgive and restore him. He even says that God speaks of a mediator who would give a ransom that would restore Job! (33:24) He encourages Job by saying, “Then he prays to God, and He accepts him; he sees His (God’s) face with a shout of joy, and God restores to man his righteousness.” (33:26)  

Job 34 Elihu’s Second Speech

Elihu directs his second speech to Job’s friends. He emphasizes the truth that God is perfect and righteous in all His judgments. He agrees with them that Job has spoken without knowledge and without insight. (34:35) He agrees with them that Job has rebelled against God.

He continues by telling Job’s friends that they are men of understanding. (34:10) He continues by affirming God’s sovereignty and His justice (mishpat). Elihu is speaking to both Job and his friends of the limitations of human reason. He is clearly leading up to his main argument: God is great, and Job is small (along with his three friends). He is correct in saying that neither Job nor his friends know what God is doing. He appeals to Job to stop judging God and to return to Him in humility.

Job 35 Elihu’s Third Speech

Elihu continues to rebuke Job for his demand that God should give him a public trial to show his innocence. This is his greatest accusation against Job, “that he dares to claim that he is right and God is in the wrong.” (see Job: The Faith to Challenge God, by Michael L. Brown) 

But Elihu is rebuking all of them, by saying, “But none say, ‘Where is God my Maker, who gives songs in the night?” (35:10) This is one of the most powerful statements Elihu makes in his long speech. Elihu says many things that are true, but he continues to judge Job without giving any answers to his question of why the righteous suffer. We might say that Elihu is “at times an insightful character who displays the limitations of human wisdom while also preparing the way of the Lord.” (M. Brown, p. 241) We can see this more clearly in Elihu’s last speech.

Job 36—37 Elihu’s Fourth Speech

Elihu’s approach begins to change radically in his last speech. He begins to speak only of the greatness of God. He begins by speaking of His righteous dealings with among men, and of His search for righteous men. He tells Job that God is exalted in power, and there is no teacher like Him. (36:22) He tells them to remember to exalt God’s work, for which people have sung praises to Him. (36:24) 

Elihu begins to praise God’s works in nature, which is visible to all people. He has not answered Job’s many questions, which shows the limitations of human wisdom. But he has done what God sent him to do: He has taken Job’s eyes off of himself and set them on the majesty of God. He speaks strongly to Job: “Hear this, O Job; stop and consider the wondrous works of God.” (37:14) He concludes his words by saying that Almighty God is beyond our reach. He is supreme in power, abounding in righteousness and faultless in justice. This young man has opened the door for God to reveal himself. Is this not the greatest thing we can do as we teach and share God’s Word? To be a “door-opener for God?” 

Some things to consider

1. Elihu is not a particularly likeable person, and it is easy to question his motives. But this is not the purpose of good Bible study, because the Bible says nothing about his character or motives. How do you understand this man? Do you believe God sent Him? If so, for what purpose?

2. Elihu told Job that he desires to justify him. (33:32) In what way do you think Elihu justified Job?

3. Discuss with another person, or group of people, what you consider to be the main contribution of Elihu to the story of Job. What is his main argument? What is his main accusation against Job and his three friends? From the beginning of chapter 36 all the way through chapter 37, Elihu changed the way he talked and began to praise the justice and majesty of God. Why do you think he did this?

4. Are you prepared to admit that younger members of our community may have wisdom that older members do not have? 

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욥기 제 9과

욥기 32:1—37:24

하나님을 향한 문을 연 미지의 청년

엘리후가 대화에 참여하다 욥기 32:1-37:24

31장은 “욥의 말이 그치니라” (31:40)는 말로 끝이 났습니다. 그렇지만 하나님의 말씀은 끝나지 않았습니다. 하나님은 욥과 그의 친구들 모두에게 이야기할 청년을 먼저 보내심으로써 욥을 향한 말씀을 시작하십니다. 오늘의 성경공부에서는 그의 이야기를 더 많이 듣게 될 것입니다. 

청년 엘리후는 갑자기 나타났다가 갑자기 사라집니다. 성경은 엘리후에 대해서 욥기 밖의 어디에서도이야기하지 않습니다. 그는 람 종족 부스 사람이라는 것 외에 역시 아무것도 알려지지 않은 바라겔의 아들로 알려져 있습니다. (32:2) 엘리후의 이름 뜻은 “나의 하나님”이라는 뜻으로 주님은 나의 하나님이라는 뜻을 가집니다. 어쩌면 하나님께서는 그를 주님의 길을 예비할 “광야의 소리”로 보내셨는지도 모릅니다. 사실이것은 그가 이 논쟁에서 그가 공헌한 한 가지였습니다. 엘리후가 여전히 말하고 있는 중에 하나님 자신이폭풍우 가운데에서 욥에게 나타나셨기 때문입니다. 

여섯 장에 걸쳐서 엘리후는 네 번의 변론을 합니다. 아마도 우리는 그가 네 개의 다른 강조점으로 하나의 변론을 말한다고 해야 할 것입니다. 그러나 우리는 그의 말을 네 개의 변론으로 분석할 것입니다.  

욥기 32-33 엘리후의 첫 번째 변론

엘리후는 자신에 대한 소개와 자신의 말할 권리에 대해 이야기함으로 첫 번째 변론을 시작합니다. 그는하나님보다 자기를 의롭다 하는 욥에게 화를 내면서 시작합니다. 그리고 나서 그는 욥의 세 친구들이 욥의고난에 대한 답을 찾지 못한 채 그를 판단했기 때문에 그들에게 분노를 돌립니다.   

그는 인간의 지혜의 한계에 대해 이야기했지만 자기 자신의 지혜도 제한적이라는 것을 잊은 듯 보입니다. 그는 진리를 이야기합니다. 특히 모든 지혜가 전능자의 숨결, 즉 하나님의 영으로부터 온다고 말할 때(32:8) 더욱 그렇습니다. 그러나 그는 자신이 지혜가 충만하다고 말할 때는 전혀 겸손하지 않았습니다. 그는 “내 속에는 말이 가득하니 내 영이 나를 압박함이니라.” (32:18)고 말합니다. 그러나 우리는 엘리후가 친구를 사귀기 위해 온 것이 아니라, 욥과 그의 세 친구가 하나님에 대해 하고 있는 비난과 거짓 진술로부터하나님을 변호하기 위해 타오르는 열정을 가지고 왔다는 것을 기억해야 합니다. 이런 점에서 엘리후의 분노는 의로운 분노였습니다. 그는 너무 겸손하지 않았지만 반면에 이성적이었습니다. 

엘리후는 그의 첫 번째 변론의 마지막 부분에 욥에게 향합니다. 그는 더 부드럽게 욥에게 이렇게 말합니다. “내가 기쁜 마음으로 그대를 의롭다 하리니” (33:32) 그는 욥과 동질감을 느끼려 노력하면서 하나님께서 그에게 고난 중에서 말씀하고 계시며, 만일 욥이 하나님에 대한 원망을 멈추고 그 대신 하나님께 기도한다면, 하나님께서 용서하시고 회복시켜 주실 것이라는 것을 확신시켜 주려고 노력합니다. 그는 거기 더해서하나님께서 욥을 회복시킬 대속물을 주실 중보자에 대해 말씀하신다고 이야기합니다! (33:24) 그는 “그는하나님께 기도하므로 하나님이 은혜를 베푸사 그로 말미암아 기뻐 외치며 하나님의 얼굴을 보게 하시고 사람에게 그의 공의를 회복시키시느니라.” (33:26)는 말로 욥을 격려했습니다. 

욥기 34 엘리후의 두 번째 변론

엘리후는 욥의 친구들에게 두 번째 변론을 말합니다. 그는 하나님은 완전하시며 그의 모든 판단에 의로우시다는 진리를 강조합니다. 그는 욥이 지식이나 통찰력이 없이 말했다는 데 동의합니다. (34:35) 또한 욥이 하나님께 반항했다는 그들의 의견에 동의합니다. 

그는 욥의 친구들을 총명한 사람이라고 이야기하면서 그의 변론을 계속합니다. (34:10) 그리고 하나님의 통치와 그분의 공의 (미쉬파트: mishpat)에 대해 계속해서 확언합니다. 엘리후는 욥과 그의 친구들 모두에게 인간의 이성의 한계에 대해 이야기하고 있습니다. 그는 분명히 하나님은 위대하시며, (다른 세 친구들도 함께) 욥은 작다는 그의 주된 논거로 이끌어가고 있습니다. 욥이나 그의 친구들 모두 하나님이 하시는 일을 알지 못한다고 하는 그의 말은 옳습니다. 그는 욥에게 하나님을 판단하는 것을 멈추고 겸손함으로 그분께 돌아오라고 호소합니다. 

욥기 35 엘리후의 세 번째 변론

엘리후는 욥이 하나님께 자신의 결백을 보여주기 위한 공개적인 재판을 하도록 요구한 것을 계속해서질책했습니다. 이것은 욥에 대한 그의 가장 큰 고발이었는데, “그는 자신이 옳고 하나님이 틀렸다고 감히 주장했습니다.” (참고도서 Job: The Faith to Challenge God, by Michael L. Brown)

그런데 엘리후는 “나를 지으신 하나님은 어디 계시냐고 하며 밤에 노래를 주시는 자가 어디 계시냐고 말하는 자가 없구나” (35:10)라는 말로 그들 모두를 질책합니다. 이것은 엘리후의 긴 변론을 말하는 가운데가장 힘 있는 진술이었습니다. 엘리후가 말한 많은 것들은 진실이었습니다. 그러나 그는 계속해서 의로운자가 왜 고난을 받아야 하는지에 대한 욥의 질문에 대한 답을 주지 않은 채 욥을 비난합니다. 우리는 엘리후가 “때때로 인간의 지혜의 한계를 드러내면서도 주님의 길을 준비하는 통찰력 있는 품성을 가진 사람”이라고 말할 수 있을지도 모릅니다. (M. Brown, p.241) 우리는 이것을 엘리후의 마지막 변론에서 더 명확히 알수 있습니다. 

욥기 36-37 엘리후의 네 번째 변론

엘리후의 접근방식은 그의 마지막 변론에서 급격하게 변합니다. 그는 하나님의 위대하심만을 말하기 시작합니다. 그는 사람들을 대하는 하나님의 의로운 처분과 그분이 의인들을 찾으시는 것에 대해 말하는 것으로 시작합니다. 그는 욥에게 하나님은 그의 권능으로 높이 계시나니 누가 그같이 교훈을 베풀겠느냐고 말합니다. (36:22) 그는 그들에게 하나님께서 하신 일을 기억하고 (높이며, 인생이 그의 일을 찬송하였다고 이야기합니다. (36:24)) 높여라인생이 . . . 찬송사였기 때문이라고 이야기합니다.

엘리후는 모든 사람들이 볼 수 있는 자연에서의 하나님의 역사를 찬양하기 시작합니다. 그는 인간의 지혜의 한계를 보여주는 욥의 많은 질문들에 답하지 않았습니다. 그러나 그는 하나님께서 그를 보내셔서 맡기신 일들을 행했습니다. 그는 욥의 눈을 스스로에게서 떼어서 하나님의 위엄을 향해 고정시키게 했습니다. 그는 욥에게 강하게 말합니다. “욥이여 이것을 듣고 가만히 서서 하나님의 오묘한 일을 깨달으라.” (37:14) 그는 전능자를 우리가 찾을 수 없다는 말로 자신의 변론에 대한 결론을 맺습니다. 그분은 권능이 지극히 크시며, 무한한 의와 흠 없는 정의를 가지신 분입니다. 이 청년은 하나님께서 자신을 드러내실 수 있도록 문을열었습니다. 이것이 우리가 하나님의 말씀을 가르치고 나눌 때 할 수 있는 가장 위대한 일이 아니겠습니까? “하나님을 향한 문을 여는 사람들”이 되는 것이 바로 그 일이 아니겠습니까?

생각해 볼 것들

1. 엘리후는 특별히 호감 가는 인물이 아니며, 그의 동기에 대해 쉽게 의문을 가질 수 있습니다. 그러나성경은 그의 성품이나 동기에 대해 말하지 않고 있기 때문에 이것은 좋은 성경공부의 목적이 아닙니다. 이사람에 대해서 어떻게 이해하십니까? 하나님께서 그를 보내셨다고 믿습니까? 만일 그렇다면, 그 목적은 무엇입니까?

2. 엘리후는 욥에게 기쁜 마음으로 그를 의롭다 할 것이라고 말했습니다. (33:32) 무슨 방법으로 엘리후가 욥을 의롭다 했다고 생각하십니까?

3. 다른 사람, 소그룹 멤버들과 함께 엘리후가 욥의 이야기에서 가장 주되게 기여한 것이 무엇이라고 생각하는지 토론해 보십시오. 그의 주된 주장은 무엇입니까? 욥과 그의 세 친구들에 대한 그의 주된 고발 내용은 무엇이었습니까? 36장 초반부부터 37장까지 엘리후는 그의 이야기하는 방식을 바꾸고 하나님의 공의와 위엄을 찬양하기 시작했습니다. 그가 왜 그렇게 했다고 생각하십니까?

4. 우리의 공동체의 젋은 멤버들이 나이 든 멤버들이 갖고 있지 않은 지혜를 가졌다는 것에 대해 인정할준비가 되어 있습니까?

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Job Lesson Eight

Job 29:1—31:40

Job’s Final Speech

Job 29:1—31:40 

Job gives his final speech. He begins by remembering his former days, just a few months before tragedy struck. Two things stand out:

1. His relationship with God. (29:1—6)

Job began with his memories of God’s goodness, the times “when God watched over me . . . and when “by His light I walked through darkness.” He enjoyed friendship with God, which is promised only to those who fear the Lord. Almighty God was with him. His life was surrounded by God’s goodness. He enjoyed the bountiful blessings of God. 

2. His relationship with others (29:7-25) He previously had enjoyed the deepest respect and admiration of people around him. He was the father of the poor, the defender of the weak. He “dwelt as a king in the army,” the chief of all wise men. But now the days of affliction have come upon him, and he has become like dust and ashes. His companions have all left him. All this gives us a better picture of Job. He is not perfect. The Book of Job is not a parable; Job is not a fictional “good man.” He is a real man who is blessed, but broken.                                              

Job thought he would live in this way for the remainder of his life. He enjoyed a high position in society, but at the same time he showed compassion and comfort to all those in need. But he comes back to reality. The gap between Job chapter 29 – what life was like before, and chapter 30 – what life is like now, is very wide.

Job chapter 30 begins with the words “but now they laugh at me.” The Book of Job does not tell us specifically how Job was mistreated by “mere youngsters, whose fathers I would have disdained to set with the dogs of my flock.” But it is clear that he was mocked and belittled by the very lowest people, the outcast, of his society. They were people who could not tolerate righteous people and who were waiting for some calamity to come upon Job to bring about his downfall. “And now I have become their song; I am a byword to them.” (30:9) Job has no defense against these people. He is vulnerable; his life has collapsed, and he is in chaos. He is suffering from severe attacks of satan (I prefer to not capitalize his name), misunderstanding and judgment by his friends, and ridicule by society.

Three times in chapter 30, Job begins his words with “but now.” (verses 1, 9 and 16) The last time, in verse 16, Job has nearly given up. “My soul is poured out within me; days of affliction have taken hold of me.” (30:16) 

Job believes that the basic cause of his great suffering is that God has removed His protection from him (30:11), causing these low-life people to persecute him. God has cast him away, and he has become like dust and ashes. (30:19) It is interesting that Job uses this same expression, “dust and ashes” again after he meets God face to face. He then says that he repents in dust and ashes. After his restoration by God, Job no longer speaks of his low estate as punishment from God. Rather, he knows himself and humbles himself before God. He suffered humiliation from all those around him. But later this humiliation proves to be only a tool for God to teach him true humility.

Job makes his final appeal to God. (31:1—40) This is the climax of all of Job’s speeches. Job has spoken of his righteousness, and said that he is blameless before God. 

  1. Job has made a covenant with his eyes. He will not gaze upon a virgin with lust. (31:1)
  2. He continues to maintain his innocence. Throughout this chapter, notice how Job begins his profession of innocence with the word “if.” (31:5, 7, 9, 13, 21, 24, 25, 26, 29, 31, 33, 38, 39) 
  3. Job invites God to scrutinize his whole life. He is certain that he is innocent. He has treated all people well. Notice how Job has treated his servants, the poor, the orphan, the widow, even his enemies. 
  4. Job has a signature! (31:35) He and Ezekiel are the only two people in the Old Testament who use this expression. This is his mark. This is who He is. And he wants Almighty God to answer him and show him if he is guilty.  
  5. “The words of Job are ended.” (vs. 40) He has pleaded his case and declared that he is innocent.       

Job’s righteousness exceeded that of all men of his time. But he did not yet know the true righteousness that comes through faith in the redeeming act of God in Jesus Christ. Notice the many times in this closing defense that Job uses the pronouns “I, me, and my.” He lived life to the fullest, in true faithfulness and obedience to God. He was indeed one of the three most righteous men who ever lived at that time, according to the prophet Ezekiel (along with Daniel and Noah). 

Job was satisfied with his life up to the point of his attacks by Satan. His agonizing question, then, was “why has this calamity come upon me? I have trusted God fully; I have never denied Him and have lived a life of obedience to God. Why must I suffer?” This is the great question in the Book of Job: “Why do the righteous suffer?” And in his human righteousness, Job demands that God answer him. He can find no answer. His three friends have no answer. They have no further questions for Job, partly because they find Job to be self-righteous and partly because they do not understand what is happening.

The only one who understood what was happening was God Himself. This is because God had greater plans for Job, much greater than Job could have imagined. 

We know that God was working in the midst of Satan’s attacks on Job, because God is the one who permitted Satan to attack him. God continues to work great wonders even today, in the midst of worldwide unrest, suffering and great fear and anxiety. The great work that God is doing in the world today is not new. From the beginning of history, God has been working in His people. He was searching for a people with whom He could dwell. He continues His search today. He is searching for people who will love as He loves, who will walk in His truth by doing justice, loving mercy, and walking closely with Him. He is searching for people He can use to establish and extend His Kingdom on earth, as it is in heaven.

When God finds a person in whom, and through whom He can reveal His glory, He seeks to strengthen that person. “For the eyes of the LORD move to and fro throughout the earth that He may strongly support those whose heart is completely His.” (2 Chronicles 16:9a NASB) God found such a person in Job, who was the most righteous man of his time. God’s plan for Job, which Job could not understand, was to strengthen him greatly so that He could use Him in a greater way. 

We mentioned in our introduction to the Book of Job that Jeremiah might possibly have been the author of Job. There is no evidence that Jeremiah wrote this book. But Jeremiah understood Job, probably more than Job understood himself. He understood what was happening in Job’s life, because the same thing was happening in his nation when he prophesied. Job was a broken man. Jeremiah’s nation was a broken nation. But Jeremiah understood that God had allowed His people Israel to be broken, and He had allowed Job to be a broken man. Jeremiah knew a secret that Job did not know: God is the Potter, and He was holding His people in His hands, just as He held Job in His hands. 

Job thought he was dying, and at times he even wished for death. Jeremiah knew he was dying when he was thrown into a cistern filled with mud and clay. But unlike Job, Jeremiah did not wish to die, because he knew that he had a mission to perform for his people. Perhaps it was in this cistern that Jeremiah received his vision of God as the Potter. (Jeremiah 18:1-11) 

In the beginning, the Lord formed Job as a righteous man. But He had a deeper work to perform in Job’s life. He was forming Job into His own image. But the only way the potter can form a vessel into a more beautiful image is to break it and remold it. Job’s brokenness was not the work of Satan, nor was it the result of his three friends condemning him, or the low-life people of his day belittling him. Job was in God’s hands, and God continued to remold Job into His desired vessel, so that he could discover the treasure hidden in His suffering.    

We are not told how Job lived his life after God restored him. But we do know that God restored Job perfectly, like a Master Potter who is proud of His work. We must look to Isaiah, and ultimately to the New Testament, to see how God transforms lives to use them to extend His Kingdom on earth.  

Some things to consider

1. Job mentioned that he had a “signature.” (31:35) How would you describe his signature? Job used the word “if” more than a dozen times in chapter 31. How would you describe his life before he was tested?

2. Do you agree with the definition of history as “God is creating a people with whom He can dwell?” How would you explain this? What is He wanting to change in your life so that you may dwell with God?

3. How has God used brokenness in your life? Have you experienced Him as the “Potter” who sometimes breaks and remolds His clay? 

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욥기 제 8과

욥의 마지막 변론

욥기 29:1—31:40 

욥이 마지막 변론을 합니다. 그는 비극이 닥치기 몇 달 전, 그의 지난 세월을 기억하는 것으로 시작합니다. 거기에서 두 가지가 눈에 띕니다. 

  1. 하나님과의 관계. (29:1—6)

욥은 “하나님이 그를 보호하시던 때…” 그리고 “그의 빛을 힘입어 암흑 속을 걸어다니던 때”의 하나님의선하심에 대한 기억들로 시작합니다. 그는 주님을 경외하는 사람들에게만 약속된 하나님과의 친밀함을누렸습니다. 전능하신 하나님께서 그와 함께 계셨습니다. 그의 삶은 하나님의 선하심으로 둘러싸여 있었습니다. 그는 하나님의 풍성한 복을 누렸습니다.   

  • 다른 사람들과의 관계 (29:7-25)

그는 이전부터 주위에 있는 사람들로부터 깊은 존경과 찬사를 받았습니다. 그는 빈궁한 자들의 아버지이자, 약한 자들의 수호자였습니다. 그는 “군대 중에 있는 왕처럼” 모든 지혜자들의 으뜸 되는 자리에 거했습니다. 그런데 지금 고난의 시간들이 그에게 닥쳤고, 그는 먼지나 재와 같이 되었습니다. 그의 친구들은모두 그를 떠났습니다. 이 모든 것들이 욥에 대한 더 나은 그림을 보여줍니다. 욥기는 비유가 아닙니다. 욥은 허구로 지어낸 “선한 사람”이 아닙니다. 그는 축복을 받았지만 깨어졌던 실제 인물입니다. 

욥은 그의 남은 생애 동안 이렇게 살 것이라고 생각했습니다. 그는 사회의 높은 지위를 누렸지만, 동시에필요가 있는 모든 사람들에게 자비를 보이며 위로를 주었습니다. 그러나 그는 현실로 돌아오게 됩니다. 그의 이전 삶이 어땠는지를 보여주는 욥기 29장과 현재 그가 어떻게 살고 있는지를 보여주는 욥기 30장사이의 간격은 너무 넓습니다. 

욥기 30장은 “이제는 나보다 젊은 자들이 나를 비웃는구나”라는 말로 시작합니다. 욥기는 “그들의 아비들은 내가 보기에 내 양 떼를 지키는 개 중에도 둘 만하지 못한 자들인 단순한 젊은 자들”이 욥을 어떻게함부로 대했는지 구체적으로 이야기하지 않습니다. 그렇지만 당시 사회의 가장 낮은 계층의 버림받은 자들로부터 조롱과 업신여김을 받았다는 것은 명백합니다. 그들은 의로운 사람들을 용납할 수 없었고, 욥에게 몰락을 가져다줄 어떤 재난이 닥치기를 기다리는 사람들이었습니다. “이제는 그들이 나를 노래로조롱하며 내가 그들의 놀림거리가 되었으며” (30:9) 욥은 이 사람들로부터 자신을 방어할 수 없었습니다. 그는 연약했고, 그의 삶은 무너졌으며, 그는 혼돈 속에 있었습니다.  

욥은 30장에서 세 번 “그러나 이제는” (1, 9, 그리고 16절)이라는 말로 시작합니다. 그 마지막인 16절에서, 욥은 거의 포기 상태에 이릅니다. “이제는 내 생명이 내 속에서 녹으니 환난 날이 나를 사로잡음이라” (30:16)

욥은 그가 겪는 이 큰 고난의 근본적인 원인이 하나님께서 그를 향한 보호하심을 거두어 가셨기 때문에(30:11) 하층민들이 그를 핍박하게 하게 된 것이라고 믿었습니다. 하나님은 그를 던지셨고, 티끌과 재같게 하셨습니다. (30:19) 욥이 “티끌과 재”라는 이 표현을 그가 하나님과 대면하여 만나게 된 뒤에 다시 사용했다는 것이 흥미롭습니다. 하나님께서 그를 회복시켜 주신 뒤에 욥은 더 이상 자신의 비천함을하나님의 징계라고 말하지 않습니다. 그 대신, 그는 자신을 알고 하나님 앞에서 자신을 겸손하게 합니다. 그는 주변에 있는 모든 사람들로부터 굴욕을 당했습니다. 하지만 이 굴욕은 나중에 그에게 진정한 겸손을 가르치시는 하나님의 유일한 도구가 되었음이 증명됩니다. 

욥은 마지막으로 하나님께 호소합니다. (31:1-40) 이것은 욥의 모든 변론 중에 절정이라고 할 수 있습니다. 욥은 자신의 의로움에 대해서와 하나님 앞에서 그가 흠이 없다는 것을 말합니다. 

  1. 욥은 자신의 눈과 약속합니다. 그는 탐욕으로 처녀에게 주목하지 않겠다고 약속합니다. (31:1)
  2. 그는 계속해서 자신의 결백을 주장합니다. 이 장 전체에 걸쳐서 어떻게 욥이 “만일”이라는 말로 자신의 결백의 선언을 시작하는지 주목해 보십시오. (31:5, 7, 9, 13, 21, 24, 25, 26, 29, 31, 33, 38, 39)
  3. 욥은 그의 삶 전체를 하나님께서 면밀하게 살피시기를 초청합니다. 그는 자신이 결백하다는 것을확신합니다. 그는 모든 사람들을 잘 대했습니다. 욥이 자신의 종들, 가난한 자들, 고아, 과부, 심지어 원수들에게까지 어떻게 대했는지 주목해 보십시오. 
  4. 욥의 서명이 여기 있습니다! (31:35) 구약에서 이 표현을 사용한 사람은 욥과 에스겔 단 두 사람뿐입니다. 이것은 그의 표시였습니다. 이것은 그가 누구인지를 보여주는 것입니다. 그리고 그는전능하신 하나님께서 그에게 응답하시고 만일 죄가 있다면 그에게 보여주시기를 원했습니다. 
  5. 욥의 말이 그치니라.” (40절) 그는 자신에 대해 변호하면서 자신의 결백을 선포했습니다. 

욥의 의로움은 당대의 모든 사람들보다 뛰어났습니다. 그렇지만 그는 예수 그리스도 안에서 하나님의구원의 행위에 대한 믿음을 통해 임하는 진정한 의로움에 대해 아직 알지 못했습니다. 욥이 이 변론을 마무리하면서 “내가, 나를, 나의” 같은 대명사를 여러 번 사용했다는 것에 주목하십시오. 그는 참된 신실함과 하나님께 대한 순종으로 충만한 삶을 살았습니다. 선지자 에스겔에 따르면 그는그 당시에 살았던 가장 의로운세 사람 (다니엘, 노아와 함께) 중 한 사람이었습니다.

욥은 사탄의 공격을 받는 시점까지 자신의 삶에 만족했습니다. 그의 고통스런 질문은 이것이었습니다. “왜 이런 재앙이 나에게 임한 것일까? 나는 하나님을 완전히 신뢰했고, 그분을 부인하지 않았고 하나님께순종하는 삶을 살았는데 왜 나는 고난을 당해야 하는 것일까?” 이것은 욥기에서 가장 큰 질문입니다: “왜 의인들이 고난을 받아야 하는가?” 그리고 욥은 그의 인간적인 의로움 안에서 하나님의 응답을 요청했습니다. 그는 아무런 답도 얻을 수 없었습니다. 세 친구들도 답을 주지 못했습니다. 그들은 욥에 대해 더 이상의 질문이 없습니다. 그 이유는 부분적으로는 욥이 독선으로 가득 찼다고 생각했기 때문이고, 부분적으로는 무슨일이 일어나는지 이해할 수 없었기 때문입니다.  

무슨 일이 일어나고 있는지 이해하고 있는 분은 하나님 자신 뿐이었습니다. 왜냐하면 하나님은 욥을 위해 그가 상상하는 것보다 훨씬 더 큰 계획을 가지고 계셨기 때문입니다.  

우리는 하나님이 욥에 대한 사탄의 공격 가운데서 일하고 계셨다는 것을 압니다. 왜냐하면 하나님은 사탄이 그를 공격하도록 허락하신 분이기 때문입니다. 하나님은 오늘날에도 전 세계적인 불안, 고통, 그리고큰 두려움과 염려 가운데도 계속해서 크고 기이한 일을 행하십니다. 오늘날 하나님께서 세계에서 행하고 계신 위대한 일들은 새로운 것이 아닙니다. 역사의 시작부터, 하나님은 그의 백성들 안에서 일하고 계셨습니다. 하나님은 그가 함께 거하실 수 있는 사람들을 찾고 계셨습니다. 그는 오늘도 계속해서 그런 사람들을 찾으십니다. 그분은 자신이 사랑하는 것처럼 사랑할 사람을 찾고 계시며, 공의를 행하고 자비를 사랑하며 그분과 가까이 걸음으로써 그분의 진리 안에서 행할 사람들을 찾고 계십니다. 그분은 하늘에서처럼 땅에서도그분의 왕국을 세우고 확장하기 위해 쓰임 받을 사람들을 찾고 계십니다.

하나님께서 그 안에서 그리고 그를 통해 하나님의 영광을 드러낼 사람을 찾으셨을 때, 하나님은 그 사람을 강하게 하기를 원하십니다. “여호와의 눈은 온 땅을 두루 감찰하사 전심으로 자기에게 향하는 자들을 위하여 능력을 베푸시나니.” (역대하 16:9a) 하나님은 그런 사람을 찾으셨습니다. 욥은 당대에 가장 의로운 사람이었습니다. 욥이 이해할 수 없었던, 욥을 향한 하나님의 계획은 그를 더 크고 강하게 함으로써, 더욱 놀라운 방법으로 그를 사용하실 수 있도록 하는 것이었습니다. 

우리는 욥기 성경공부의 서론에서 예레미야가 욥기의 저자일 수 있다고 언급했습니다. 예레미야가 이책을 썼다는 증거는 없습니다. 그렇지만 예레미야는 아마도 욥이 자신의 상황을 이해하는 것보다 더 많이욥을 이해했을 것입니다. 그는 욥의 삶에서 무슨 일이 일어나고 있었는지 이해했습니다. 왜냐하면 같은 일이 그가 예언을 했던 그의 민족 안에서 일어났기 때문입니다. 욥은 깨어진 사람이었습니다. 예레미야의 민족은 깨어진 민족이었습니다. 그렇지만 예레미야는 하나님께서 그의 백성 이스라엘이 깨어지도록 허락하신것을 이해했고, 하나님께서 욥을 깨어진 사람이 되도록 허락하신 것도 이해했습니다. 예레미야는 욥이 알지못하는 비밀을 알았습니다. 하나님은 토기장이이시며 그분은 그 손으로 자기 백성들을 붙들고 계십니다. 마치 욥을 그분의 손 안에 붙들고 계신 것처럼 말입니다. 

욥은 자신이 죽어가고 있다고 생각했고, 때로 죽기를 바라기까지 했습니다. 예레미야는 진흙으로 가득한 진흙 구덩이 속에 던져졌을 때 자신이 죽어가고 있음을 알았습니다. 그러나 욥과는 달리, 예레미야는 죽기를 구하지 않았습니다. 왜냐하면, 그는 그의 민족을 위해 수행해야 할 사명이 있다는 것을 알았기 때문입니다. 어쩌면 예레미야가 토기장이이신 하나님의 비전을 그 진흙 구덩이 속에서 받았을 지도 모릅니다. (예레미야 18:1-11)

태초에 주님께서는 욥을 의인으로 빚으셨습니다. 그러나 하나님은 욥의 삶 속에서 행하셔야 할 더 깊은일이 있었습니다. 그분은 욥을 하나님의 형상으로 빚어 가셨습니다. 토기장이가 그릇을 더 아름다운 형상으로 빚을 수 있는 유일한 방법은 그것을 깨뜨리고 다시 빚는 것입니다. 욥의 깨어짐은 사탄의 역사가 아니었고, 세 친구들의 비난의 결과도 아니었으며, 당대의 하층민들로부터 받았던 조롱 때문도 아니었습니다. 욥은 하나님의 손 안에 있었고, 욥이 고난 가운데 숨겨진 보배를 발견할 수 있도록 하나님은 그를 자신이 원하시는 그릇으로 계속해서 재형성하셨습니다. 

우리는 하나님께서 욥을 회복시켜 주신 뒤에 어떻게 그가 살았는지 듣지 못했습니다. 그러나 우리는 하나님께서 자신의 걸작품을 자랑스럽게 여기는 최고의 토기장이처럼 완벽하게 욥을 회복시켜 주셨다는 것을압니다. 우리는 이사야, 그리고 더 궁극적으로는 신약에 주목해야 하나님께서 어떻게 생명을 변화시켜 이땅에 하나님 나라를 확장시키기 위해 그들을 사용하시는지 알 수 있습니다.  

생각해 볼 것들

1. 욥은 나의 “서명”이 여기에 있다고 말했습니다. (31:35) 그의 서명에 대해 어떻게 설명하시겠습니까? 욥은 “만일”이라는 말을 31장 안에 열두 번도 더 사용했습니다. 시험당하기 전 그의 삶에 대해 어떻게묘사하시겠습니까?

2. 역사의 정의에 대해 “하나님께서 그분과 함께 거하실 수 있는 사람들을 창조해 가는 것” 이라는 데 동의하십니까? 이것을 어떻게 설명하시겠습니까?

3. 하나님께서는 우리 삶의 깨어짐을 어떻게 사용하셨습니까? 때로는 깨뜨리셨다가 진흙을 다시 빚으시는 토기장이이신 하나님을 경험해 본 적이 있으십니까?

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욥기 제 7과

욥기 22:1—28:28 

세 번째 변론

 번째 변론 (욥기 22:1 – 28:28)

엘리바스의 변론 22:1-30 

엘리바스에 관해 주목할 것들

  1. 엘리바스와 그의 친구들은 수년 동안 욥을 알았으며, 하나님의 은총을 입은 그의 정직한 삶을 목격했습니다. 그러나 지금 욥은 선을 넘었습니다. 그는 그들의 정통적인 율법 신학을 거부했습니다. 
  2. 엘리바스는 이제 욥을 악하다고 결론짓습니다. 엘리바스는 그것을 자신의 율법적인 시각 안에서 해석합니다. 욥이 악인들이 처하게 될 운명을 경험하고 있기 때문에, 그래서 욥이 악하다는 것입니다. 그는 욥에게 유죄를 선포합니다.
  3. 엘리바스의 말들, 특히 5-9은 책 전체에서 가장 구체적이고, 혹독하면서, 사실이 아닌 말을 욥에게 말합니다. 이 때까지 욥에 대해 가장 큰 긍휼을 보여주었던 엘리바스의 입에서 그 말들을 듣게 된 것은 이상한 일입니다. 
  4. 엘리바스는 “하나님이 무엇을 아시냐?”고 욥을 비난합니다. 그는 욥에게 하나님께서는 그의 은밀한 죄까지도 보실 수 있다고 말합니다. 
  5. 그러나 엘리바스는 갑지가 소망으로 돌이켜서 욥에게 만일 하나님께 돌아가서 그의 죄를 고백한다면, 하나님께서 응답하시고 그를 완전히 회복시켜 주실 것이라고 말합니다. 엘리바스의 신학은 율법주의적일지도 모르지만그는 여전히 욥을 아끼고 있습니다. 그는 세 친구들 중에서 욥에 대한 자비와 긍휼을 유지하고 있는 유일한 사람이었습니다. 물론 엘리바스는 자신이 곧 하나님의 책망을 받고 나서 욥의 기도를 통해 회복될 것을 깨닫지 못했습니다. 

엘리바스에 대한 의 대답. 23:1-24:25

욥은 그가 처음 변론에서 했던 것과 거의 같은 방식으로 말합니다. 그는 엘리바스가 했던 대부분의 말을무시합니다. 


욥의 유일한 소망은 하나님을 찾는 것입니다. 그는 하나님을 어디서 찾을 수 있는지 알고자 하는 깊은갈망으로 외칩니다. 그것은 펠릭스 멘델스존이 그의 오라토리오 엘리야에서 가장 아름답게 표현되었습니다: “내가 어찌하면 하나님을 발견하고 그의 처소에 (그의 임재 안에) 나아가랴 (23:3)… 너희가 온 마음으로 나를 구하면 나를 찾을 것이요 나를 만나리라. (렘 29:13)”

이것은 하나님께서 고난 속에서 욥에게 드러내신 하나님의 오묘한 것들의 또 다른 예입니다. 물론 욥은그 깊은 신비를 완전히 이해하지 못했습니다. 그는 완전히 이해할 수 없었을 때에도 진리를 말했습니다. 

욥은 하나님을 어떻게 발견할지 알지 못했지만 하나님을 향해 외쳤습니다. 하나님을 볼 수 없었지만, 그는 하나님이 계심을 알고 있었습니다. 그의 유일한 소망은 하나님을 발견하여 그분 앞에서 자신의 상황을변론하는 것이었습니다. 어떤 의미에서 욥의 친구들의 거짓된 고발은 실제로 욥으로 하여금 하나님을 발견하기 위해 갈급함을 가지고 시도하도록 몰아가는 유익이 되었습니다. 욥은 하나님의 공의나 자비에 대해 의심하지 않았습니다. 그는 단지 그분을 어떻게 발견할지 알고 싶었습니다!

23:10 욥은 하나님을 발견할 수 없었지만, 하나님은 욥이 어디 있는지 아셨고, 그를 보고 계셨습니다. 욥은 아주 중요한 발견을 하게 됩니다: 그는 자신이 겪어야만 했던 모든 어려움이 하나님께서 그를 징계하신 것이 아니라 하나님이 그를 시험하신 것임을 이해하시 이해하기 시작합니다. 그래서 그는 소망을 표현합니다. 그가 나를 단련하신 후에는 내가 순금 같이 되어 나오리라.”

욥은 하나님께서 그를 불 같은 시험 속에 그를 두시고 그를 연단시켜서 나오게 하실 것을 깨달았습니다. 

욥은 우리가 인내하는 가운데 하나님을 향한 신뢰를 계속해서 고백할 수 있는 힘에 대한 비밀을 알려줍니다. 23:12 “내가 그의 입술의 명령을 어기지 아니하고 정한 음식보다 그의 입의 말씀을 귀히 여겼도다.” … 23:14 “그런즉 내게 작성하신 것을 이루실 것이라 이런 일이 그에게 많이 있느니라.” 이것은 주께 범죄하지 아니하려 하여 주의 말씀을 내 마음에 두었다고 (시편 119:11) 말하는 시편기자의 고백을 떠올리게 해줍니다. 욥은 하나님을 두려워했지만 이렇게 말했습니다. “나는 아직 죽지 않았으니, 계속해서 내 상황을 변론하리라!”

24 악인들의 행위와 가난한 자들의 고난을 다룹니다. 또한 욥은 악인들의 최종 형벌에 대해 말합니다. 이 두 가지를 말함으로써 욥은 하나님의 공의를 보기를 갈망합니다. 하나님은 이 모든 악을 보고 계십니다. 그러나 “… 하나님이 그들의 참상을 보지 아니하시느니라.” (24:12) 욥은 가난한 자들의 고통에 대한하나님의 긍휼에 대해 질문합니다. 그는 심지어 22절에서 이렇게 말합니다. “그러나 하나님이 그의 능력으로 강포한 자들을 끌어내시나니

욥은 악인에 대한 하나님의 심판과 고통받는 의인을 위한 구원이 어디에 있는지를 물음으로써 엘리바스에 대한 대답을 끝맺습니다. 그는 아무것도 찾을 수 없었습니다.

빌닷은 욥에 대해 조급하게 반응합니다. 25:1-6

그는 이 시점에서 하나님은 높임을 받으실 만하며, 구더기 같고 벌레 같은 인간은 천하고 죄가 많다는것 말고는 거의 할 말이 없었습니다. 이 때부터, 세 친구들 중 아무도 다시 말하지 않습니다. 소발은 욥을 꾸짖을 세 번째 기회를 가질 수조차 없었습니다. 빌닷이 자신의 변론을 말하는 데는 단 6절이면 되었습니다. 세 친구들의 우물은 말라버렸습니다. 

욥이 자신의 변론을 요약하기 시작하다. 26:1-28:28

이제부터 여섯 장은 욥의 모든 변론의 절정을 이룹니다. 그는 친구들에 대한 그의 변론을 요약합니다. 

  1. 욥은 먼저 빌닷에게 대응합니다. 그는 냉소적으로 말합니다. “네가 힘 없는 자를 참 잘도 도와주는구나!” (26:2) 그는 빌닷에게 “그런 고난 가운데 있는 다른 사람들을 어떻게 도왔는가?”와 같은 질문을 계속합니다. 욥은 계속해서 하나님께서 만물을 다스리신다고 이야기합니다. 그는 기본적으로 빌닷이 아는 모든것을 알고 있으며, 빌닷이 고통에 도움이 될 만한 말을 한 것 이 없다고 이야기하고 있습니다.  
  2. 27을 시작하면서 욥은 세 친구 모두에게 이야기합니다. 
    1. 27:2-6 그는 자신의 영혼을 괴롭게 하신 하나님을 원망했지만, 하나님께서 계속해서 그에게 생명을 주고 계심을 고백합니다. 그는 하나님의 은혜 때문에 자신이 살아 있다는 것을 알았습니다. 그럼에도 그는 계속해서 하나님께 불평합니다.  
    1. 욥은 자신의 정당함에 대한 확신을 가지고 있었습니다. v. 6 “내가 내 공의를 굳게 잡고 놓지 아니하리니”
    1. 욥은 자신에 대한 진실을 알았습니다. 그는 그의 친구들이 틀렸다는 것을 알고 있었습니다. 그는자신의 고난에 대해 호소하고 있을 때에도 하나님 앞에서 자신이 의로운 삶을 살았다는 흔들리지않는 확신 가운데 있었습니다. 
  3. 28. 놀라운 일이 일어납니다. 세 친구들과 변론하던 중에, 욥은 갑자기 지혜를 말하기 시작합니다! 어떤 사람들은 이것을 “지혜를 향한 욥의 찬송”이라고 말합니다. 
    1. 야고보서에서 야고보가 “아래로부터 나온 지혜”와 “위로부터 나온 지혜”를 대조하는 부분을 참고하는 것이 도움이 될 것입니다. 욥은 “화평하고 관용하고 양순하며 긍휼과 선한 열매가 가득하고편견과 거짓이 없나니 화평하게 하는 자들은 화평으로 심어 의의 열매를 거두느니라” (야고보서3:17-18)고 말하는 위로부터 난 지혜에 대해 이야기하고 있습니다. 
    1. 욥은 지혜의 충만함을 아직 이해하지 못했지만, 하나님의 지혜에 대한 그의 놀라운 찬양은 하나님앞에서 그의 의로움을 더욱 증명해 줍니다. 그는 고난 가운데 하나님을 원망했지만, 그가 그래왔던 것처럼 의로움을 유지하고 있었습니다. 
    1. 욥은 지혜를 찾는 것이 아주 힘들다고 말하면서 시작합니다. 사람이 지혜를 구하나 그것을 찾을수 없습니다.  
    1. v. 12 – 그는 “지혜는 어디서 얻을까”라고 묻습니다. 사람은 알지 못합니다. “깊은 물이 이르기를내 속에 있지 아니하다” 합니다. 순금으로도 바꿀 수 없고 은을 달아도 그 값을 당하지 못합니다. v. 21 – “모든 생물의 눈에 숨겨졌고 공중의 새에게 가려졌으며”
    1. v. 23 – 그러나 “하나님이 그 길을 아시며 있는 곳을 아시나니” 
    1. v. 28 – 욥을 향한 하나님의 계시: “주를 경외함이 지혜요 악을 떠남이 명철이니라.” 이 정의는 욥이 하나님을 경외하며 악에서 떠난 의인이라는 것을 확인해 줍니다. 욥은 실제로 지혜에 대한 구약의 정의를 요약합니다. 
    1. 욥은 그의 긴 고난의 시험을 겪는 동안 주를 경외함을 유지했습니다. 결국 이것은 잠언에서 주님을 경외하는 것으로 정의된 것처럼 욥에게 “생명의 근원”이 되었습니다. 이사야의 말은 욥에게 진리가 되었습니다. “ 네 시대에 평안함이 있으며 구원과 지혜와 지식이 풍성할 것이니 여호와를 경외함이 네 보배니라” (이사야 33:6)
    1. 욥기 42장에 기록되었듯이, 욥이 하나님을 통해 회복되었을 때, 그는 하나님을 경외하는 사람들에게 주시는 하나님의 약속을 온전히 누리기 시작했습니다. 선지자 말라기는 이 약속들을 말라기3:18-4:6절에서 예시하고 있습니다. 
    1. 나는. 하나님께서는 욥이 고통받는 동안 “절정의 순간”을 경험하도록 허락하셨습니다. 하지만 욥의 고통이 너무 커서 계속해서 즐길 수 없습니다.

생각해 볼 것들

1. 우리는 욥이 고난 속에 숨겨진 보배를 발견하는 여정에 있다고 말해 왔습니다. 이 성경공부에서 욥이소망을 되찾기 시작했다고 믿는데 도움이 되는 것이 무엇이라고 배울 수 있었습니까?

2. 욥의 세 친구들인 엘리바스, 빌닷, 그리고 소발을 생각해 보십시오. 엘리바스의 마지막 변론에서 그의긍휼의 흔적을 발견해낼 수 있습니까? 왜 빌닷의 마지막 변론이 그렇게 짧았다고 생각하십니까? 왜 소발은 마지막 벼논의 기회를 갖지 못했다고 생각하십니까?

3. 지혜에 관한 욥의 변론에서 무엇을 배울 수 있습니까? (28:1-28)

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Job Lesson Seven

Job 22:1—28:28 

Third Cycle of Arguments  

Third Cycle of Arguments (Job 22:1 – 28:28)

Eliphaz speaks. 22:1—30

Things to notice about Eliphaz

  1. Eliphaz and his friends have known Job for many years and have witnessed his upright life, favored by God. But now Job has crossed a line: He has rejected their orthodox legal theology. 
  2. Eliphaz now concludes that Job is wicked. Eliphaz interprets it within his own legalistic view. Job is suffering the fate of the wicked; therefore Job is wicked. He pronounces Job guilty.
  3. The words of Eliphaz, especially in verses 5-9, are the most specific, harsh and untrue words spoken against Job in the whole book. It is strange to find them on the lips of Eliphaz, who to this point has shown the most compassion to Job. 
  4. Eliphaz accuses Job of saying, “What does God know?” He tells Job that God can see even his secret sins. 
  5. But Eliphaz suddenly returns to hope, telling Job that if he will return to God and confess his sins, God will answer him and restore him completely. Eliphaz’s theology may be legalistic, but he still cares for Job. Among the three friends, he is the only who maintains his mercy and compassion for Job. Of course Eliphaz does not realize that very soon he himself will be rebuked by God and then restored through Job’s prayers. 

Job answers Eliphaz. 23:1—24:25

Job speaks in much the same way as he did in the first discourse: He ignores most of what Eliphaz says. 


Job’s only hope is to find God, and he cries out with his deep longing to know where to find God, expressed most beautifully by Felix Mendelssohn in his oratorio Elijah: “Oh, that I knew where I might find Him, that I might come to His seat (into His presence) . . . if with all your hearts ye truly seek Me, Ye shall ever surely find Me, Thus saith our God.”

This is another example of the deep things of God that God is revealing to Job in the midst of his suffering. Of course Job does not fully understand these deep mysteries; he speaks truth even when he cannot fully understand it. 

Job does not know how to find God, but he cries out to God. Although he cannot see God, he knows that God is present. His only hope is to find God and plead his case before Him. In one sense, Job’s friends’ false accusations have actually had the benefit of driving Job to desperation in his attempt to find God. Job is not doubting the justice or mercy of God; he just does not know how to find Him!

23:10 Job cannot find God, but God knows where Job is, and He sees him. Job makes a very important discovery: He begins to understand that all the trouble he has undergone is not God’s punishing him; it is God’s testing him. So he expresses hope. “When He has tried me, I shall come out as gold.”

Job is aware that God has placed him in the midst of a fiery trial, and that he will come out refined. 

Job gives us the secret of his strength to endure and to continue confessing his trust in God. 23:12 “I have treasured the words of His mouth more than my portion of food” . . .23:14 “For He will complete what He appoints for me.” This reminds us of the psalmist’s confession that he has hidden God’s Word in his heart so that he might not sin. (Psalm 119:11) Job is terrified of God; but he says, “I am not dead yet. I will continue to argue my case!”

Chapter 24 deals with the actions of the wicked and with the suffering of the poor. Job also speaks of the final punishment of the wicked. By speaking of these two things, Job is longing to see God’s justice. God sees all this evil, “. . . yet God charges no one with wrong.” (24:12) Job is questioning God’s compassion on the suffering poor. He even says, in verse 22, that “yet God prolongs the life of the mighty by His power.” 

Job concludes his answer to Eliphaz by asking where is God’s judgment on the wicked and His deliverance for the suffering righteous people? He can find none.

Bildad is impatient to respond to Job. 25-1-6

He has little to say at this point, only that God is exalted on high and man, who is a maggot, or a worm, is lowly and sinful. From this point on, none of the three speak again. Zophar does not even get his third chance to rebuke Job. It only takes 6 verses for Bildad to give his closing argument. The three friends’ well has run dry. 

Job begins to sum up his argument. 26:1—28:28

These 6 chapters are the climax of all of Job’s speeches. He sums up his argument against his friends. 

  1. Job responds first to Bildad. He says, sarcastically, “How you have helped him who has no power!” (26:2) He continues to ask Bildad questions, such as “have you helped other people who were in such pain?” Job continues to talk of God as being sovereign over all things. He basically is saying that he knows everything Bildad knows, and that Bildad has said nothing that would help him in his distress.
  2. Beginning in chapter 27, Job speaks to all three of his friends. 
    1. 27:2-6 He complains to God who has made his soul bitter, but then confesses that God continues to give him life. He knows that he is alive because of God’s grace; nevertheless he continues to complain to God.
    1. Job remains confident in his own integrity. v. “I hold fast my righteousness and will not let it go.” 
    1. Job knows the truth about himself. He knows that his friends are wrong. He is immovable in his confidence that he has lived a righteous life before God, even when he is complaining about his suffering.
  3. Chapter 28. A surprising thing happens. In the midst of his argument with his three friends, Job suddenly begins to speak of wisdom! Some people speak of this as “Job’s Hymn to Wisdom.” 
    1. It would be helpful to refer to the Book of James, where James contrasts the “wisdom that comes from below” with the “wisdom that comes from above.” Job is speaking about the wisdom that comes from above, which is “peaceable, gentle, open to reason, full of mercy and good fruits, impartial and sincere. And a harvest of righteousness is sown in peace by those who make peace.” (James 3:17-18)
    1. Job does not yet understand the fullness of wisdom, but his remarkable praise of God’s wisdom is further proof of his righteousness before God. He complains to God in his suffering, but he maintains his righteousness as he does so.  
    1. Job begins by saying that the search for wisdom is very elusive. Man searches for wisdom but cannot find it.
    1. v. 12 – He asks, “where is wisdom to be found?” Man does not know; the “deep” says, “it is not in me.” It cannot be bought by silver or gold, or by any precious jewels. v. 21 – “It is hidden from the eyes of all living.” 
    1. v. 23 – But “God understands the way to it, and He knows its place.” 
    1. v. 28 – God’s revelation to Job: The fear of the Lord is wisdom, and to turn away from evil is understanding.” This definition confirms Job as a righteous man who fears God and turns away from evil. Job actually summarizes the Old Testament definition of wisdom! 
    1. Job maintained his fear of the Lord throughout his long trials of suffering. In the end, this became for Job the “fountain of life,” as the fear of the Lord is defined in Proverbs. Isaiah’s words became truth for Job: “The fear of the Lord is God’s treasure, and the stability of your times.” (Isaiah 33:6)
    1. After Job is restored by God, as recorded in Job chapter 42, Job will begin to fully enjoy the promises that God gives to those who fear Him. The prophet Malachi predicts these promises in Malachi 3:18—4:6. 
    1. God allowed Job to have his “high moments” during his suffering. But Job’s suffering is so great that he cannot continue to enjoy them.

Some things to consider

1. We have said that Job is on the way to discovering the hidden treasure in his suffering. What have you learned in this study that helps us believe that Job is beginning to regain his hope?

2. Consider Job’s three friends – Eliphaz, Bildad and Zophar. Can you detect signs of Eliphaz’s compassion in his last speech. Why do you think Bildad’s last speech was so short? Why do you think Zophar did not have the chance to give his last speech?

3.  What did you learn from Job’s speech on wisdom (28:1—28)? 

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Job Lesson Six

Job 19:1—21:34 

Job begins to discover the hidden treasure in his suffering.

(Second Cycle of Arguments Part B)

Second cycle of arguments (A)  

Job replies to Bildad 19:1—29 

  1. Job begins to mourn the fact that God has fenced him in and removed his brothers far from him. Vs. 8 “He has walled up my way, so that I cannot pass, and He has set darkness upon my paths.” 
  2. Job is estranged from everyone.
    1. His brothers and others who knew him are now estranged from him.
    1. His relatives and close friends have forgotten him.
    1. His servants think of him as a stranger.
    1. His wife does not want to be with him.
    1. Even children despise him. 
    1. All those whom he loved have turned against him. He is a stranger on earth. He begs his friends to have pity on him, because the hand of God has struck him.   
    1. But in the midst of despair, Job is beginning to discover the treasure hidden in his suffering. Job gives one of the greatest pronouncements of faith that we find in the Old Testament: “For I know that my Redeemer lives, and He shall stand at last on the earth. And after my skin is destroyed, this I know, that in my flesh I shall see God, whom I shall see for myself, and my eyes shall behold, and not another.” (19:25-27) This passage is one of the high points of the Book of Job. 

George Friederic Handel was deeply moved by these few verses, and they form one of the high moments of praise in his famous oratorio “The Messiah.” This is another example of the great contributions the Book of Job has made in giving hope to millions of people. Of course, Job was not aware of the magnitude of his confession; but later, when God restored him, he experienced the new life in his Redeemer. God was clearly revealing to him that injustice is not the final answer. Later, Isaiah, then Paul, will reveal the Redeemer who brings justice to an unjust world. 

Job may not be aware of all this means, but it is clear that God is revealing to him that injustice is not the final answer. Later, Isaiah, then Paul, will reveal the Redeemer who brings justice to an unjust world.

Notice that it is when Job is in the greatest despair that God gives him visions of God’s glory. This is true throughout the Bible. Jeremiah was in prison, actually a dungeon, in great suffering and despair; but the Lord   spoke to him and said, “Call unto Me and I will answer you, and will tell you great and hidden things that you have not known.” (Jeremiah 33:3) The same was true of the apostle Paul. He suffered greatly for the Lord, and God even gave him a thorn in the flesh to keep him humble. But he saw his weakness as the stage for God to act. God spoke to him and said, “My grace is sufficient for you, for My power is made perfect in weakness.” Therefore Paul said, “I will boast all the more gladly of my weaknesses, so that the power of Christ may rest upon me. For the sake of Christ, then, I am content with weaknesses, insults, hardships, persecutions, and calamities. For when I am weak, then I am strong.” (2 Corinthians 12:9-10) 

Job’s three friends knew that they were very strong in their spirits. But God is looking for those who are poor in spirit. “Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.” (Matthew 5:3) The poor in spirit are not weak by nature. They are strong, but relinquish their human power so that God can work through them in the power of His Holy Spirit. 

Job’s three friends would have many friends today, including Christians who are comfortable with the limited knowledge they have about God, but who are unwilling to count all things as rubbish for the sake of knowing Jesus Christ – the power of His resurrection and the joy of participating in His sufferings.

Job is not a victim, neither of circumstances nor satanic attack. God is in control, and He grants these special ideas, or visions, to Job when Job is least able to imagine them or even understand them fully. Job is beginning to discover jewels which later will lead him to discover the hidden treasure in his suffering. God is giving Job a glimpse of “the deep things of God.” Job’s three friends did not understand what Job was saying. This was deeper than their own rational theology that left no room for the supernatural intervention of God. 

The fact that God is in control helps us in two ways:

  1. To understand why God allows the righteous to suffer,
  2. To understand what God does when He allows His righteous,      beloved people to suffer.  

In Job’s darkest moments, God gave new revelation to him. Read again Job 19:25-27. Notice how Job speaks of the Redeemer. God is revealing Himself to Job in his total weakness. Job, even in his despair, speaks of him as My Redeemer. I know that He lives. I shall see Him. 

Job has not abandoned his faith in the midst of his great tragedy and suffering. He complains to God, but he does not turn away from God, nor does he say that God is unjust. Job dares to speak out and say that injustice is not the last word.  

Do we Christians not have something greater –  or someone greater whom we can believe in? When Job speaks of God as his Redeemer, he is foreshadowing the confession found in Isaiah chapters 40-66, throughout the Book of Psalms, and the New Testament. The Redeemer is Jesus Christ.      

Job does not fully understand what a redeemer does, but his anticipation echoes many of the prophecies given throughout the Old Testament, especially in the Book of Psalms and the prophecies of Isaiah. Job will actually “see God.” He later confesses in Job 42:5, “I have heard of You by the hearing of the ear, but now my eye sees You!”

Zophar speaks. 20:1-29

  1. This is Zophar’s last speech. He does not speak a third time, as do the other two friends. 
  2. In this second cycle of speeches, none of the 3 friends end with a promise of hope for Job. Zophar goes further and says that Job is one of the wicked people on earth – a hypocrite who does not know God. He claims that Job has dishonored him and brought reproach upon him. 
  3. Zophar condemns Job by not speaking to him directly, but by including him among the wicked, in a very impersonal way. His theme is the same: the wicked will perish forever. 
  4. Even though he is not speaking to Job directly, he is including Job among the wicked, who crush and abandon the poor.     
  5. Zophar says, in 20:27, that “the heavens will reveal the wicked person’s iniquity, and the earth will rise up against him.” (This may be the reason God does not allow him to give his third speech, unlike the other two friends.)  
  6. Job had already exposed the shallow theology of Zophar, after his first argument, saying that it is rigid, superficial, and cold, lacking in mercy.  Zophar chooses to respond by placing Job among the wicked of the earth, who will disappear, never to be seen again.

Job responds. 21:1—34 

Job does not respond directly to Zophar. He basically ignores the argument of his three friends. He begins to speak about the wicked. His three friends said that the wicked would be punished, and Job would be punished with them. But Job says that is not always the case. He is struggling with the same problem that the psalmist expressed in Psalm 73. 

“Why do the wicked live, reach old age, and grow mighty in power?” (Job 21:7) He is echoing the cry of the psalmist in Psalm 73, who could not understand that the wicked reject God and yet enjoy wealth and comfort, while the righteous suffer. Job contradicts Zophar, who said that the wicked will all perish and be forgotten. On the contrary, Job says, they continue to prosper while the righteous suffer. The wicked ignore God. “I could not understand this,” cried the psalmist, “until I went into the sanctuary of God; then I understood their end.” (Psalm 73:16-17) Job does not know it yet, but he also, very soon, will enter into the sanctuary of God, and his questions will cease. Job will find his Sabbath Rest in God. (see Hebrews chs. 4 and 5). 

Job concludes his response by telling his friends that their answers are empty words, full of deceit, and that they are merely speaking empty words of false doctrines to justify themselves. They bring no comfort to Job. 

Some things to consider

1. Are you beginning to discover that God gives “visions of glory” to Job in his darkest hours? What do you think is God’s purpose in allowing Job to begin to imagine the glories of a redeemed life?

2. In what ways does Job’s discovery of these “pearls” lead him to understand the greater treasure that awaits him? How does this help Job understand why God allows the righteous to suffer? How does it help Job understand what God is doing when He allows His righteous, beloved people to suffer?

3.  Read Psalm 73 again. The psalmist raises the same question as Job: why do the righteous suffer while the wicked continue to prosper. The psalmist did not understand “until I went into the sanctuary of God; then I understood their end.” (Psalm 73:16-17) What did the psalmist mean by the “sanctuary of God?” What did he discover? Are you living now in the sanctuary of God?

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욥기 제6과

욥기 19:1—21:34 

욥이 고난 중에 숨겨진 보배를 발견하기 시작하다

(두 번째 변론 Part B)

 번째 변론 (A)

빌닷에 대한 욥의 대답 19:1-29

  1. 욥은 하나님께서 자신을 가두어 놓고 형제들을 그로부터 멀리 떼어 놓으셨다는 사실에 슬퍼하기 시작합니다. “그가 내 길을 막아 지나가지 못하게 하시고 내 앞길에 어둠을 두셨으며” (19:8)
  • 욥은 모든 사람들과 멀어졌습니다. 
    • 그의 형제들과 그를 알던 모든 사람들은 이제 그에게서 멀어졌습니다.  
    • 그의 친척들과 가까운 친구들은 그를 잊었습니다. 
    • 그의 종들은 그를 낯선 사람으로 여겼습니다. 
    • 그의 아내는 그와 함께 하고 싶어하지 않았습니다. 
    • 어린아이들까지도 그를 업신여겼습니다. 
    • 그를 사랑했던 모든 사람들이 그에게 등을 돌렸습니다. 그는 땅에서 객이 되었습니다. 하나님의 손이 그를 치셨기 때문에 그는 친구들에게 자신을 불쌍히 여겨 달라고 간청했습니다.
    • 그러나 절망 속에서 욥은 그가 겪는 고난 속에 숨겨진 보배를 발견하기 시작합니다. 욥은 구약에서 우리가 볼 수 있는 가장 위대한 믿음의 선포를 하고 있습니다. 내가 알기에는 나의 대속자가 살아 계시니 마침내 그가  위에 서실 것이라.

 가죽이 벗김을 당한 뒤에도 내가 육체 밖에서 하나님을 보리라내가 그를 보리니  눈으로그를 보기를 낯선 사람처럼 하지 않을 것이라  마음이 초조하구나 (19:25-27) 이 구절은욥기에서 가장 중대한 시점입니다. 

게오르그 프레데릭 헨델은 이 몇 구절들에 깊은 감동을 받았고, 그 구절들로 그의 유명한 오라토리오 “메시아 (The Messiah)”에서 찬양의 절정의 순간을 구성했습니다. 이것은 욥기가 수백만의 사람들에게 희망을 주는 데 크게 기여한 또 다른 예입니다. 물론 욥은 자신의 고백이 갖는 위대함을 알지 못했습니다. 그렇지만 나중에 그는, 하나님께서 그를 회복시켜 주셨을 때, 구속자 안에서의 새로운 삶을 경험하게 되었습니다. 하나님은 그에게 불의가 최종 해답이 아니라는 것을 드러내고 계셨습니다. 나중에 이사야와 바울이 그 뒤를 이어서 불의한 세상에 공의를가져오시는 구속자를 드러낼 것입니다. 

욥이 가장 큰 낙망 가운데 있을 때 하나님께서 그에게 하나님의 영광에 대한 환상을 보여주셨던 것에 주목하십시오. 이것은 성경 전체에 걸쳐서 나타나는 진실입니다. 옥에 갇힌 예레미야는 실제로 구덩이 속에갇혀서 큰 고통과 낙망 가운데 빠져 있었습니다. 그런데 주님께서는 그에게 이렇게 말씀하십니다. “너는 내게 부르짖으라 내가 네게 응답하겠고 네가 알지 못하는 크고 은밀한 일을 네게 보이리라.” (예레미야 33:3) 사도 바울에게도 이것은 진실이었습니다. 그는 주님을 위한 극심한 고난 가운데 있었고, 하나님은 그를 겸손하게 하시기 위해 육체의 가시를 주시기까지 하셨습니다. 그러나 그는 자신의 연약함을 하나님께서 행하시는 무대로 보았습니다. 하나님께서는 그에게 이렇게 말씀하셨습니다.  은혜가 네게 족하도다 이는 능력이 약한 데서 온전하여짐이라.” 그래서 바울은 이렇게 말했습니다. 그러므로 도리어 크게 기뻐함으로나의 여러 약한 것들에 대하여 자랑하리니 이는 그리스도의 능력이 내게 머물게 하려 함이라그러므로 내가 그리스도를 위하여 약한 것들과 능욕과 궁핍과 박해와 곤고를 기뻐하노니 이는 내가 약한  때에 강함이라.” (고린도후서 12:9-10)

욥의 세 친구들은 자신들의 심령이 아주 강하다는 것을 알았습니다.  그러나 하나님은 심령이 가난한 사람을 찾으십니다. 심령이 가난한 자는 복이 있나니 천국이 그들의 것임이요.” (마태복음 5:3) 심령이 가난한 자는 본질적으로 연약한 사람이 아닙니다. 그들은 강하지만, 하나님께서 그들을 통해 성령의 권능 안에서 일하실 수 있도록 자신들의 인간적인 능력을 포기하고 내려놓습니다.  

욥의 세 친구들은 오늘날 하나님에 대한 제한적인 지식에 만족하면서, 예수 그리스도의 부활의 권능과그의 고난에 동참하는 기쁨을 알기 위해 모든 것을 배설물로 여기는 것을 꺼리는 그리스도인들을 포함한 많은 친구를 갖게 될 것입니다.  

욥은 환경이나 사탄의 공격에 의한 피해자가 아니었습니다. 하나님께서 통제하고 계시고, 욥이 거의 상상하지 못하거나 완전히 이해하지 못할 때, 그에게 특별한 생각과 비전을 허락하십니다. 욥은 나중에 그를고난 속에 숨겨진 보배를 발견하도록 이끌어 줄 보석들을 발견하기 시작합니다. 하나님은 욥에게 “하나님의오묘한 것들”의 면모를 주고 계십니다. 욥의 세 친구들은 욥이 무엇을 말하고 있는지 이해하지 못했습니다. 그것은 하나님의 초자연적인 간섭하심의 여지를 남겨두지 않는 그들의 합리적인 신학보다 더 깊은 것이었습니다. 

하나님이 통제하고 계신다는 사실은 두 가지 면에서 우리에게 도움을 줍니다:

  1.  하나님께서 의인들에게 고난을 허락하시는지 이해하게 해 줍니다. 
  2. 그의 의롭고 사랑하는 백성들에게 고난을 허락하실 때 하나님께서 무엇을 행하시는지 이해하게 해 줍니다. 

욥이 가장 어두움 가운데 있었던 순간에, 하나님께서는 그에게 새로운 계시를 주셨습니다. 욥기 19:25-27절을 다시 읽어 보십시오. 욥이 구속자에 대해 어떻게 말하고 있는지 주목해 보십시오. 하나님은 완전한연약함 가운데 있는 욥에게 자신을 드러내고 계십니다. 욥은 절망 속에 있으면서도 하나님을 나의 구속자로말합니다. “나는 아노라, 구속가 살아계신 것을. 나는 그를  것이라.”

욥은 엄청난 비극과 고난 속에서도 그의 믿음을 포기하지 않았습니다. 그는 하나님께 원망하고 하소연했지만, 하나님께 등을 돌리지 않았으며, 하나님을 불공평하다고 말하지도 않았습니다. 욥은 불의는 마지막말이 아니라고 주저 없이 선포하며 말했습니다

우리 그리스도인들에게는 더 위대한 것, 또는 우리가 믿을 수 있는 더 위대한 분이 계시지 않습니까? 욥이 하나님을 구속자로 말할 때, 그는 이사야 40-66장과 시편 전체, 그리고 신약에서 발견되는 고백의 예표를 보여준 것이었습니다. 구속자는 예수 그리스도이십니다. 

욥은 구속자가 의미하는 것이 무엇인지 온전히 이해하지 못했지만, 그의 기대는 구약 전체에 걸쳐 주어진 많은 예언들, 특히 시편과 이사야의 예언에 반영되어 울려 퍼졌습니다. 그는 나중에 욥기 42:5절에서 이렇게 고백합니다. “내가 주께 대하여 귀로 듣기만 하였사오나 이제는 눈으로 주를 뵈옵나이다!”

소발의 변론 20:1-29

  1. 이것은 소발의 마지막 변론입니다. 다른 두 친구들과는 달리 세 번째 변론에선 이야기하지 않습니다. 
  2. 두 번째 변론에서 세 친구 중 아무도 욥에게 소망을 약속하며 끝맺지 않습니다. 소발은 더 나아가서 욥이땅에서 가장 악하며 하나님을 알지 못하는 위선자라고 말합니다. 그는 욥이 자신을 부끄럽게 했고, 자신의 명예를 더럽혔다고 주장했습니다. 
  3. 소발은 욥을 직접적으로 거론하지 않고, 악한 자들에 욥을 포함시키는 아주 비인격적인 방법으로 그를비난합니다. 그의 이야기의 주제는 같습니다. 악한 자는 영원히 멸망할 것이다. 
  4. 욥에게 직접적으로 말하지는 않았지만, 그는 욥을 가난한 자들을 멸하고 방치하는 악한 자에 포함시킵니다. 
  5. 소발은 20:27에서, “하늘이 그의 죄악을 드러낼 것이요 땅이 그를 대항하여 일어날 것인즉”이라고 말합니다. (이것이 바로 다른 두 친구들과 달리, 하나님께서 그에게 세 번째 변론을 하도록 허락지 않으신이유일 수도 있습니다.)
  6. 욥은 이미 소발의 첫 번째 변론 후에, 그의 얕은 신학을 폭로하면서, 그의 신학이 경직되고 피상적이며냉혹하고 자비가 부족하다고 말했습니다. 소발은 욥을 땅 위에서 사라져 다시는 보지 못할 악한 자들 중에 포함시킴으로써 그에게 대응하기로 선택했습니다. 

욥의 반론. 21:1-34

욥은 소발에게 직접적으로 반응하지 않았습니다. 그는 기본적으로 세 친구들의 변론을 무시했습니다. 그는 악인들에 대해 말하기 시작합니다. 그의 세 친구들은 악인은 저주를 받게 될 것이고 욥이 그들과 함께저주받을 것이라고 말했습니다. 그러나 욥은 항상 그런 것이 아니라고 말합니다. 그는 시편 73에서 시편기자가 표현했던 것과 같은 문제로 갈등하고 있었습니다. 

“어찌하여 악인이 생존하고 장수하며 세력이 강하냐?” (욥 21:7) 그는 시편 73편에서 의인들이 고난 받고 있음에도, 하나님을 거역하는 악인들이 부요함과 안위을 누리는 것을 이해하지 못하겠다고 했던 시편 기자의 외침을 반영하여 외치고 있습니다. 욥은 악인들은 모두 멸망 받고 잊혀질 것이라고 말한 소발의 말을반박합니다. 그에 반해 욥은 의인들이 고난 받는 동안 악인들은 계속해서 번영할 것이라고 말합니다. 악인들을 하나님을 무시합니다. 시편 기자는 “내가 어쩌면 이를 알까?” 라고 외쳤으며, “하나님의 성소에 들어갈때에야 그들의 종말을 깨달았노라.” (시편 73:16-17)고 고백했습니다. 욥은 그것을 아직 깨닫지 못했지만, 그 또한 얼마 지나지 않아 하나님의 성소에 들어가게 될 것이며 그 질문은 멈추게 될 것입니다. 

욥은 친구들에게 그들의 대답은 속임수로 가득 찬 헛된 말이며, 자신들을 정당화하기 위해 그저 거짓 교리의 공허한 말하고 있을 뿐이라고 친구들에게 말함으로써 그의 응답을 끝맺고 있습니다. 그들은 욥에게 어떤 위로도 주지 못했습니다. 

생각해 볼 것들

1. 하나님께서 욥이 가장 깊은 어둠 속에 있는 시간에 그에게 “영광의 비전”을 주셨다는 것을 발견하기시작하셨습니까? 욥이 구속된 삶의 영광을 상상하도록 허락하신 하나님의 목적이 무엇이라고 생각하십니까?

2. 어떤 방법으로 욥이 발견한 이 “보석들” 이 그가 기다리는 더 큰 보배를 이해하도록 이끌어 주었습니까? 어떻게 이것은 하나님께서 의인에게 고난을 허락하시는 이유를 욥이 이해하도록 도와주었습니까? 그것은 욥이 그의 의롭고 사랑하는 사람들이 고난 받도록 허락하실 때, 하나님께서 무엇을 하시는 지 이해하는 데 어떻게 도움을 주었습니까?

3. 시편 73편을 다시 읽어 보십시오. 시편 기자는 욥과 같은 질문을 던지고 있습니다. 왜 악인들이 계속해서 번영하는 동안 의인들이 고난을 받아야 합니까? 시편 기자는 처음에는 그것을 이해하지 못했고 하나님의 성소에 들어갈 때에야 그들의 종말을 내가 깨달았습니다.” (시편 73:16-17) 시편 기자에게 있어서 “하나님의 성소”는 무엇을 의미합니까? 거기서 그는 무엇을 발견했습니까? 

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Job Lesson Five

Job 15:1—18:21

Second Cycle of Arguments Between Job and His Friends (Part A)

Second Cycle of Arguments (A) 

The attitude of Job’s three friends changes dramatically in this second cycle. They have lost their compassion and have absolutely no mercy for Job. This shows how quickly friends who came such a long way out of love to comfort their dear friend Job in his suffering, could lose their patience and become accusers rather than comforters. This does not make them evil people; nor is Job evil for speaking out of his desperation.

But what does this apparent blockage in their friendship reveal about friendship? Certainly, that mercy and compassion must always be foremost in friendshipListeningwith openness is also important in friendship. But Job’s three friends had their preconceived ideas about Job’s suffering. Their theology was neat and compact. They did not know how to go beyond their human knowledge. 

God was enlarging Job’s understanding of who God is and how He works in our lives. But Job was unable to deal with God’s method of teaching! And his friends were viewing Job only through the lens of their human understanding. What does this say about how friends must help one another when one is suffering?

  1. Friends must be open to enlarging one another’s understanding of God. The friends seemed to be unaware that God was doing something new in Job – something that would radically change not only Job but also themselves. The result was that both Job and his friends ended up with a lot of anger towards one another. 
  • This reveals another mark of friendship: we must be quick to forgive one another, even when our ideas clash. There is no room for judgmentalism in friendship. They still loved one another, and we know that God restored their friendship at the end. But God first required them to forgive one another. The basic problem, of course, is that there is no human logical answer to suffering. In their anger, neither Job nor his friends could admit that truth. 
  • There seemed to be no place for prayer for one another. We will see this now in the second and third cycle of discourses. 

Eliphaz begins the second cycle of discourses. 15:1-35

Things to notice about Eliphaz

  1. He does not have the patience that he showed to Job in his first speech. He acknowledges Job’s wisdom but questions his knowledge of God and how He works.  
  • He believes that this is the time to rebuke Job for challenging God, and for refusing to accept the wisdom of his friends. He informs Job that since God does not even trust His saints and that the heavens are not pure in God’s sight (a questionable assumption), how much less would God trust a man who sins. 
  • He judges Job by telling him that he does not have the fear of the Lord, which is a major requirement in the Old Testament for any righteous person. (Eliphaz must have changed his mind, because earlier, in 4:6, he says to Job, “is not your fear of God your confidence?”)
  • He even accuses Job of hindering meditation on God.
  • Eliphaz calls Job a hypocrite who took bribes! (15:34)
  • He then begins to talk about the wicked in general; it is almost like a sermon, not even talking to Job directly. He ignores Job’s complaints and simply accuses Job of being a wicked person. 
  • Finally, he reveals his own self-righteousness by maintaining that he is not condemning Job, but rather that Job’s own mouth is condemning him. 
  • Eliphaz is definitely orthodox in his faith. But it is a cold orthodoxy, with no compassion for a suffering friend who God Himself said was the most righteous man who ever lived. 

Job has now challenged the theological system that is the basis of their lives. His friends do not know how to respond or to help Job, so they begin to defend themselves. Neither Job nor his friends are able to see God as He really is. 

Job replies. 16:1—17:16

  1. Job feels totally alone now. His friends treat him like a very sinful, evil man. He says that his friends are miserable comforters. 
  2. He tells them what he would say if the situation were reversed: “I would strengthen you with my mouth, and the comfort of my lips would relieve your grief.” (16:5) 
  3. His basic problem, however, is that God has “worn him out ” (16:7) and destroyed his family. He says that God has “shriveled me up,” (16:8), and has delivered him into the hands of the ungodly.
  4. But in the midst of his anguish, Job makes an amazing statement: “Surely even now my witness is in heaven, and He who testifies for me is on high!” (16:19) Who is this witness? Job does not know who this is, but it is clear that he knew that such a mediator existed. 
  5. Job’s hope was later fulfilled far beyond anything he could expect. Of course he could not understand it at the time, but we now know that the witness, the heavenly mediator, is Jesus Christ. 1 John 2:1 “But if anyone does sin, we have an advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous.” Jesus took the punishment that not only Job but also the whole world deserved.                        
  6. Job had these moments of amazing hope. It is almost as if God gave him hints of His complete salvation. But just as soon as Job has such an awareness, he reverts back to his pain and suffering.
  7. Once again his spirit is broken, and he can find no purpose in continuing to live. He believes that his end is coming near. 

Bildad speaks (18:1-21)

Bildad is clearly the most shallow of Job’s three friends. He now has lost all compassion and sees no hope for Job. He is very audacious when he tells Job to get some knowledge and understanding, and then we will talk! (18:2) He believes that Job has no understanding of the basic doctrines of God; but it is Bildad, ironically, who lacks knowledge. 

Bildad contends that the theological doctrines that everyone should know must never be challenged. His doctrine is based on law, not on grace; and even his attitude reveals that he considers the keeping of orthodox doctrine more important than ministering to a suffering brother.

He concludes that Job has been driven from light into darkness, which is the only place for the one who does not know God. Bildad has nothing new to say in his second speech. His only message is that evil will be punished.

Job has been devastated. Bildad says that “such are the dwellings of the unrighteous, such is the place of him who knows not God.” (18:21)

Some things to consider

1. How do you think Job and his three friends could have had a better conversation? How should they have changed their approach?

2. Consider Job’s reply to Eliphaz. Did you notice any element of hope in his reply?

3. Why was the cause of Bildad’s frustration with Job?

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