Job Lesson Six

Job 19:1—21:34 

Job begins to discover the hidden treasure in his suffering.

(Second Cycle of Arguments Part B)

Second cycle of arguments (A)  

Job replies to Bildad 19:1—29 

  1. Job begins to mourn the fact that God has fenced him in and removed his brothers far from him. Vs. 8 “He has walled up my way, so that I cannot pass, and He has set darkness upon my paths.” 
  2. Job is estranged from everyone.
    1. His brothers and others who knew him are now estranged from him.
    1. His relatives and close friends have forgotten him.
    1. His servants think of him as a stranger.
    1. His wife does not want to be with him.
    1. Even children despise him. 
    1. All those whom he loved have turned against him. He is a stranger on earth. He begs his friends to have pity on him, because the hand of God has struck him.   
    1. But in the midst of despair, Job is beginning to discover the treasure hidden in his suffering. Job gives one of the greatest pronouncements of faith that we find in the Old Testament: “For I know that my Redeemer lives, and He shall stand at last on the earth. And after my skin is destroyed, this I know, that in my flesh I shall see God, whom I shall see for myself, and my eyes shall behold, and not another.” (19:25-27) This passage is one of the high points of the Book of Job. 

George Friederic Handel was deeply moved by these few verses, and they form one of the high moments of praise in his famous oratorio “The Messiah.” This is another example of the great contributions the Book of Job has made in giving hope to millions of people. Of course, Job was not aware of the magnitude of his confession; but later, when God restored him, he experienced the new life in his Redeemer. God was clearly revealing to him that injustice is not the final answer. Later, Isaiah, then Paul, will reveal the Redeemer who brings justice to an unjust world. 

Job may not be aware of all this means, but it is clear that God is revealing to him that injustice is not the final answer. Later, Isaiah, then Paul, will reveal the Redeemer who brings justice to an unjust world.

Notice that it is when Job is in the greatest despair that God gives him visions of God’s glory. This is true throughout the Bible. Jeremiah was in prison, actually a dungeon, in great suffering and despair; but the Lord   spoke to him and said, “Call unto Me and I will answer you, and will tell you great and hidden things that you have not known.” (Jeremiah 33:3) The same was true of the apostle Paul. He suffered greatly for the Lord, and God even gave him a thorn in the flesh to keep him humble. But he saw his weakness as the stage for God to act. God spoke to him and said, “My grace is sufficient for you, for My power is made perfect in weakness.” Therefore Paul said, “I will boast all the more gladly of my weaknesses, so that the power of Christ may rest upon me. For the sake of Christ, then, I am content with weaknesses, insults, hardships, persecutions, and calamities. For when I am weak, then I am strong.” (2 Corinthians 12:9-10) 

Job’s three friends knew that they were very strong in their spirits. But God is looking for those who are poor in spirit. “Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.” (Matthew 5:3) The poor in spirit are not weak by nature. They are strong, but relinquish their human power so that God can work through them in the power of His Holy Spirit. 

Job’s three friends would have many friends today, including Christians who are comfortable with the limited knowledge they have about God, but who are unwilling to count all things as rubbish for the sake of knowing Jesus Christ – the power of His resurrection and the joy of participating in His sufferings.

Job is not a victim, neither of circumstances nor satanic attack. God is in control, and He grants these special ideas, or visions, to Job when Job is least able to imagine them or even understand them fully. Job is beginning to discover jewels which later will lead him to discover the hidden treasure in his suffering. God is giving Job a glimpse of “the deep things of God.” Job’s three friends did not understand what Job was saying. This was deeper than their own rational theology that left no room for the supernatural intervention of God. 

The fact that God is in control helps us in two ways:

  1. To understand why God allows the righteous to suffer,
  2. To understand what God does when He allows His righteous,      beloved people to suffer.  

In Job’s darkest moments, God gave new revelation to him. Read again Job 19:25-27. Notice how Job speaks of the Redeemer. God is revealing Himself to Job in his total weakness. Job, even in his despair, speaks of him as My Redeemer. I know that He lives. I shall see Him. 

Job has not abandoned his faith in the midst of his great tragedy and suffering. He complains to God, but he does not turn away from God, nor does he say that God is unjust. Job dares to speak out and say that injustice is not the last word.  

Do we Christians not have something greater –  or someone greater whom we can believe in? When Job speaks of God as his Redeemer, he is foreshadowing the confession found in Isaiah chapters 40-66, throughout the Book of Psalms, and the New Testament. The Redeemer is Jesus Christ.      

Job does not fully understand what a redeemer does, but his anticipation echoes many of the prophecies given throughout the Old Testament, especially in the Book of Psalms and the prophecies of Isaiah. Job will actually “see God.” He later confesses in Job 42:5, “I have heard of You by the hearing of the ear, but now my eye sees You!”

Zophar speaks. 20:1-29

  1. This is Zophar’s last speech. He does not speak a third time, as do the other two friends. 
  2. In this second cycle of speeches, none of the 3 friends end with a promise of hope for Job. Zophar goes further and says that Job is one of the wicked people on earth – a hypocrite who does not know God. He claims that Job has dishonored him and brought reproach upon him. 
  3. Zophar condemns Job by not speaking to him directly, but by including him among the wicked, in a very impersonal way. His theme is the same: the wicked will perish forever. 
  4. Even though he is not speaking to Job directly, he is including Job among the wicked, who crush and abandon the poor.     
  5. Zophar says, in 20:27, that “the heavens will reveal the wicked person’s iniquity, and the earth will rise up against him.” (This may be the reason God does not allow him to give his third speech, unlike the other two friends.)  
  6. Job had already exposed the shallow theology of Zophar, after his first argument, saying that it is rigid, superficial, and cold, lacking in mercy.  Zophar chooses to respond by placing Job among the wicked of the earth, who will disappear, never to be seen again.

Job responds. 21:1—34 

Job does not respond directly to Zophar. He basically ignores the argument of his three friends. He begins to speak about the wicked. His three friends said that the wicked would be punished, and Job would be punished with them. But Job says that is not always the case. He is struggling with the same problem that the psalmist expressed in Psalm 73. 

“Why do the wicked live, reach old age, and grow mighty in power?” (Job 21:7) He is echoing the cry of the psalmist in Psalm 73, who could not understand that the wicked reject God and yet enjoy wealth and comfort, while the righteous suffer. Job contradicts Zophar, who said that the wicked will all perish and be forgotten. On the contrary, Job says, they continue to prosper while the righteous suffer. The wicked ignore God. “I could not understand this,” cried the psalmist, “until I went into the sanctuary of God; then I understood their end.” (Psalm 73:16-17) Job does not know it yet, but he also, very soon, will enter into the sanctuary of God, and his questions will cease. Job will find his Sabbath Rest in God. (see Hebrews chs. 4 and 5). 

Job concludes his response by telling his friends that their answers are empty words, full of deceit, and that they are merely speaking empty words of false doctrines to justify themselves. They bring no comfort to Job. 

Some things to consider

1. Are you beginning to discover that God gives “visions of glory” to Job in his darkest hours? What do you think is God’s purpose in allowing Job to begin to imagine the glories of a redeemed life?

2. In what ways does Job’s discovery of these “pearls” lead him to understand the greater treasure that awaits him? How does this help Job understand why God allows the righteous to suffer? How does it help Job understand what God is doing when He allows His righteous, beloved people to suffer?

3.  Read Psalm 73 again. The psalmist raises the same question as Job: why do the righteous suffer while the wicked continue to prosper. The psalmist did not understand “until I went into the sanctuary of God; then I understood their end.” (Psalm 73:16-17) What did the psalmist mean by the “sanctuary of God?” What did he discover? Are you living now in the sanctuary of God?

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욥기 제6과

욥기 19:1—21:34 

욥이 고난 중에 숨겨진 보배를 발견하기 시작하다

(두 번째 변론 Part B)

 번째 변론 (A)

빌닷에 대한 욥의 대답 19:1-29

  1. 욥은 하나님께서 자신을 가두어 놓고 형제들을 그로부터 멀리 떼어 놓으셨다는 사실에 슬퍼하기 시작합니다. “그가 내 길을 막아 지나가지 못하게 하시고 내 앞길에 어둠을 두셨으며” (19:8)
  • 욥은 모든 사람들과 멀어졌습니다. 
    • 그의 형제들과 그를 알던 모든 사람들은 이제 그에게서 멀어졌습니다.  
    • 그의 친척들과 가까운 친구들은 그를 잊었습니다. 
    • 그의 종들은 그를 낯선 사람으로 여겼습니다. 
    • 그의 아내는 그와 함께 하고 싶어하지 않았습니다. 
    • 어린아이들까지도 그를 업신여겼습니다. 
    • 그를 사랑했던 모든 사람들이 그에게 등을 돌렸습니다. 그는 땅에서 객이 되었습니다. 하나님의 손이 그를 치셨기 때문에 그는 친구들에게 자신을 불쌍히 여겨 달라고 간청했습니다.
    • 그러나 절망 속에서 욥은 그가 겪는 고난 속에 숨겨진 보배를 발견하기 시작합니다. 욥은 구약에서 우리가 볼 수 있는 가장 위대한 믿음의 선포를 하고 있습니다. 내가 알기에는 나의 대속자가 살아 계시니 마침내 그가  위에 서실 것이라.

 가죽이 벗김을 당한 뒤에도 내가 육체 밖에서 하나님을 보리라내가 그를 보리니  눈으로그를 보기를 낯선 사람처럼 하지 않을 것이라  마음이 초조하구나 (19:25-27) 이 구절은욥기에서 가장 중대한 시점입니다. 

게오르그 프레데릭 헨델은 이 몇 구절들에 깊은 감동을 받았고, 그 구절들로 그의 유명한 오라토리오 “메시아 (The Messiah)”에서 찬양의 절정의 순간을 구성했습니다. 이것은 욥기가 수백만의 사람들에게 희망을 주는 데 크게 기여한 또 다른 예입니다. 물론 욥은 자신의 고백이 갖는 위대함을 알지 못했습니다. 그렇지만 나중에 그는, 하나님께서 그를 회복시켜 주셨을 때, 구속자 안에서의 새로운 삶을 경험하게 되었습니다. 하나님은 그에게 불의가 최종 해답이 아니라는 것을 드러내고 계셨습니다. 나중에 이사야와 바울이 그 뒤를 이어서 불의한 세상에 공의를가져오시는 구속자를 드러낼 것입니다. 

욥이 가장 큰 낙망 가운데 있을 때 하나님께서 그에게 하나님의 영광에 대한 환상을 보여주셨던 것에 주목하십시오. 이것은 성경 전체에 걸쳐서 나타나는 진실입니다. 옥에 갇힌 예레미야는 실제로 구덩이 속에갇혀서 큰 고통과 낙망 가운데 빠져 있었습니다. 그런데 주님께서는 그에게 이렇게 말씀하십니다. “너는 내게 부르짖으라 내가 네게 응답하겠고 네가 알지 못하는 크고 은밀한 일을 네게 보이리라.” (예레미야 33:3) 사도 바울에게도 이것은 진실이었습니다. 그는 주님을 위한 극심한 고난 가운데 있었고, 하나님은 그를 겸손하게 하시기 위해 육체의 가시를 주시기까지 하셨습니다. 그러나 그는 자신의 연약함을 하나님께서 행하시는 무대로 보았습니다. 하나님께서는 그에게 이렇게 말씀하셨습니다.  은혜가 네게 족하도다 이는 능력이 약한 데서 온전하여짐이라.” 그래서 바울은 이렇게 말했습니다. 그러므로 도리어 크게 기뻐함으로나의 여러 약한 것들에 대하여 자랑하리니 이는 그리스도의 능력이 내게 머물게 하려 함이라그러므로 내가 그리스도를 위하여 약한 것들과 능욕과 궁핍과 박해와 곤고를 기뻐하노니 이는 내가 약한  때에 강함이라.” (고린도후서 12:9-10)

욥의 세 친구들은 자신들의 심령이 아주 강하다는 것을 알았습니다.  그러나 하나님은 심령이 가난한 사람을 찾으십니다. 심령이 가난한 자는 복이 있나니 천국이 그들의 것임이요.” (마태복음 5:3) 심령이 가난한 자는 본질적으로 연약한 사람이 아닙니다. 그들은 강하지만, 하나님께서 그들을 통해 성령의 권능 안에서 일하실 수 있도록 자신들의 인간적인 능력을 포기하고 내려놓습니다.  

욥의 세 친구들은 오늘날 하나님에 대한 제한적인 지식에 만족하면서, 예수 그리스도의 부활의 권능과그의 고난에 동참하는 기쁨을 알기 위해 모든 것을 배설물로 여기는 것을 꺼리는 그리스도인들을 포함한 많은 친구를 갖게 될 것입니다.  

욥은 환경이나 사탄의 공격에 의한 피해자가 아니었습니다. 하나님께서 통제하고 계시고, 욥이 거의 상상하지 못하거나 완전히 이해하지 못할 때, 그에게 특별한 생각과 비전을 허락하십니다. 욥은 나중에 그를고난 속에 숨겨진 보배를 발견하도록 이끌어 줄 보석들을 발견하기 시작합니다. 하나님은 욥에게 “하나님의오묘한 것들”의 면모를 주고 계십니다. 욥의 세 친구들은 욥이 무엇을 말하고 있는지 이해하지 못했습니다. 그것은 하나님의 초자연적인 간섭하심의 여지를 남겨두지 않는 그들의 합리적인 신학보다 더 깊은 것이었습니다. 

하나님이 통제하고 계신다는 사실은 두 가지 면에서 우리에게 도움을 줍니다:

  1.  하나님께서 의인들에게 고난을 허락하시는지 이해하게 해 줍니다. 
  2. 그의 의롭고 사랑하는 백성들에게 고난을 허락하실 때 하나님께서 무엇을 행하시는지 이해하게 해 줍니다. 

욥이 가장 어두움 가운데 있었던 순간에, 하나님께서는 그에게 새로운 계시를 주셨습니다. 욥기 19:25-27절을 다시 읽어 보십시오. 욥이 구속자에 대해 어떻게 말하고 있는지 주목해 보십시오. 하나님은 완전한연약함 가운데 있는 욥에게 자신을 드러내고 계십니다. 욥은 절망 속에 있으면서도 하나님을 나의 구속자로말합니다. “나는 아노라, 구속가 살아계신 것을. 나는 그를  것이라.”

욥은 엄청난 비극과 고난 속에서도 그의 믿음을 포기하지 않았습니다. 그는 하나님께 원망하고 하소연했지만, 하나님께 등을 돌리지 않았으며, 하나님을 불공평하다고 말하지도 않았습니다. 욥은 불의는 마지막말이 아니라고 주저 없이 선포하며 말했습니다

우리 그리스도인들에게는 더 위대한 것, 또는 우리가 믿을 수 있는 더 위대한 분이 계시지 않습니까? 욥이 하나님을 구속자로 말할 때, 그는 이사야 40-66장과 시편 전체, 그리고 신약에서 발견되는 고백의 예표를 보여준 것이었습니다. 구속자는 예수 그리스도이십니다. 

욥은 구속자가 의미하는 것이 무엇인지 온전히 이해하지 못했지만, 그의 기대는 구약 전체에 걸쳐 주어진 많은 예언들, 특히 시편과 이사야의 예언에 반영되어 울려 퍼졌습니다. 그는 나중에 욥기 42:5절에서 이렇게 고백합니다. “내가 주께 대하여 귀로 듣기만 하였사오나 이제는 눈으로 주를 뵈옵나이다!”

소발의 변론 20:1-29

  1. 이것은 소발의 마지막 변론입니다. 다른 두 친구들과는 달리 세 번째 변론에선 이야기하지 않습니다. 
  2. 두 번째 변론에서 세 친구 중 아무도 욥에게 소망을 약속하며 끝맺지 않습니다. 소발은 더 나아가서 욥이땅에서 가장 악하며 하나님을 알지 못하는 위선자라고 말합니다. 그는 욥이 자신을 부끄럽게 했고, 자신의 명예를 더럽혔다고 주장했습니다. 
  3. 소발은 욥을 직접적으로 거론하지 않고, 악한 자들에 욥을 포함시키는 아주 비인격적인 방법으로 그를비난합니다. 그의 이야기의 주제는 같습니다. 악한 자는 영원히 멸망할 것이다. 
  4. 욥에게 직접적으로 말하지는 않았지만, 그는 욥을 가난한 자들을 멸하고 방치하는 악한 자에 포함시킵니다. 
  5. 소발은 20:27에서, “하늘이 그의 죄악을 드러낼 것이요 땅이 그를 대항하여 일어날 것인즉”이라고 말합니다. (이것이 바로 다른 두 친구들과 달리, 하나님께서 그에게 세 번째 변론을 하도록 허락지 않으신이유일 수도 있습니다.)
  6. 욥은 이미 소발의 첫 번째 변론 후에, 그의 얕은 신학을 폭로하면서, 그의 신학이 경직되고 피상적이며냉혹하고 자비가 부족하다고 말했습니다. 소발은 욥을 땅 위에서 사라져 다시는 보지 못할 악한 자들 중에 포함시킴으로써 그에게 대응하기로 선택했습니다. 

욥의 반론. 21:1-34

욥은 소발에게 직접적으로 반응하지 않았습니다. 그는 기본적으로 세 친구들의 변론을 무시했습니다. 그는 악인들에 대해 말하기 시작합니다. 그의 세 친구들은 악인은 저주를 받게 될 것이고 욥이 그들과 함께저주받을 것이라고 말했습니다. 그러나 욥은 항상 그런 것이 아니라고 말합니다. 그는 시편 73에서 시편기자가 표현했던 것과 같은 문제로 갈등하고 있었습니다. 

“어찌하여 악인이 생존하고 장수하며 세력이 강하냐?” (욥 21:7) 그는 시편 73편에서 의인들이 고난 받고 있음에도, 하나님을 거역하는 악인들이 부요함과 안위을 누리는 것을 이해하지 못하겠다고 했던 시편 기자의 외침을 반영하여 외치고 있습니다. 욥은 악인들은 모두 멸망 받고 잊혀질 것이라고 말한 소발의 말을반박합니다. 그에 반해 욥은 의인들이 고난 받는 동안 악인들은 계속해서 번영할 것이라고 말합니다. 악인들을 하나님을 무시합니다. 시편 기자는 “내가 어쩌면 이를 알까?” 라고 외쳤으며, “하나님의 성소에 들어갈때에야 그들의 종말을 깨달았노라.” (시편 73:16-17)고 고백했습니다. 욥은 그것을 아직 깨닫지 못했지만, 그 또한 얼마 지나지 않아 하나님의 성소에 들어가게 될 것이며 그 질문은 멈추게 될 것입니다. 

욥은 친구들에게 그들의 대답은 속임수로 가득 찬 헛된 말이며, 자신들을 정당화하기 위해 그저 거짓 교리의 공허한 말하고 있을 뿐이라고 친구들에게 말함으로써 그의 응답을 끝맺고 있습니다. 그들은 욥에게 어떤 위로도 주지 못했습니다. 

생각해 볼 것들

1. 하나님께서 욥이 가장 깊은 어둠 속에 있는 시간에 그에게 “영광의 비전”을 주셨다는 것을 발견하기시작하셨습니까? 욥이 구속된 삶의 영광을 상상하도록 허락하신 하나님의 목적이 무엇이라고 생각하십니까?

2. 어떤 방법으로 욥이 발견한 이 “보석들” 이 그가 기다리는 더 큰 보배를 이해하도록 이끌어 주었습니까? 어떻게 이것은 하나님께서 의인에게 고난을 허락하시는 이유를 욥이 이해하도록 도와주었습니까? 그것은 욥이 그의 의롭고 사랑하는 사람들이 고난 받도록 허락하실 때, 하나님께서 무엇을 하시는 지 이해하는 데 어떻게 도움을 주었습니까?

3. 시편 73편을 다시 읽어 보십시오. 시편 기자는 욥과 같은 질문을 던지고 있습니다. 왜 악인들이 계속해서 번영하는 동안 의인들이 고난을 받아야 합니까? 시편 기자는 처음에는 그것을 이해하지 못했고 하나님의 성소에 들어갈 때에야 그들의 종말을 내가 깨달았습니다.” (시편 73:16-17) 시편 기자에게 있어서 “하나님의 성소”는 무엇을 의미합니까? 거기서 그는 무엇을 발견했습니까? 

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Job Lesson Five

Job 15:1—18:21

Second Cycle of Arguments Between Job and His Friends (Part A)

Second Cycle of Arguments (A) 

The attitude of Job’s three friends changes dramatically in this second cycle. They have lost their compassion and have absolutely no mercy for Job. This shows how quickly friends who came such a long way out of love to comfort their dear friend Job in his suffering, could lose their patience and become accusers rather than comforters. This does not make them evil people; nor is Job evil for speaking out of his desperation.

But what does this apparent blockage in their friendship reveal about friendship? Certainly, that mercy and compassion must always be foremost in friendshipListeningwith openness is also important in friendship. But Job’s three friends had their preconceived ideas about Job’s suffering. Their theology was neat and compact. They did not know how to go beyond their human knowledge. 

God was enlarging Job’s understanding of who God is and how He works in our lives. But Job was unable to deal with God’s method of teaching! And his friends were viewing Job only through the lens of their human understanding. What does this say about how friends must help one another when one is suffering?

  1. Friends must be open to enlarging one another’s understanding of God. The friends seemed to be unaware that God was doing something new in Job – something that would radically change not only Job but also themselves. The result was that both Job and his friends ended up with a lot of anger towards one another. 
  • This reveals another mark of friendship: we must be quick to forgive one another, even when our ideas clash. There is no room for judgmentalism in friendship. They still loved one another, and we know that God restored their friendship at the end. But God first required them to forgive one another. The basic problem, of course, is that there is no human logical answer to suffering. In their anger, neither Job nor his friends could admit that truth. 
  • There seemed to be no place for prayer for one another. We will see this now in the second and third cycle of discourses. 

Eliphaz begins the second cycle of discourses. 15:1-35

Things to notice about Eliphaz

  1. He does not have the patience that he showed to Job in his first speech. He acknowledges Job’s wisdom but questions his knowledge of God and how He works.  
  • He believes that this is the time to rebuke Job for challenging God, and for refusing to accept the wisdom of his friends. He informs Job that since God does not even trust His saints and that the heavens are not pure in God’s sight (a questionable assumption), how much less would God trust a man who sins. 
  • He judges Job by telling him that he does not have the fear of the Lord, which is a major requirement in the Old Testament for any righteous person. (Eliphaz must have changed his mind, because earlier, in 4:6, he says to Job, “is not your fear of God your confidence?”)
  • He even accuses Job of hindering meditation on God.
  • Eliphaz calls Job a hypocrite who took bribes! (15:34)
  • He then begins to talk about the wicked in general; it is almost like a sermon, not even talking to Job directly. He ignores Job’s complaints and simply accuses Job of being a wicked person. 
  • Finally, he reveals his own self-righteousness by maintaining that he is not condemning Job, but rather that Job’s own mouth is condemning him. 
  • Eliphaz is definitely orthodox in his faith. But it is a cold orthodoxy, with no compassion for a suffering friend who God Himself said was the most righteous man who ever lived. 

Job has now challenged the theological system that is the basis of their lives. His friends do not know how to respond or to help Job, so they begin to defend themselves. Neither Job nor his friends are able to see God as He really is. 

Job replies. 16:1—17:16

  1. Job feels totally alone now. His friends treat him like a very sinful, evil man. He says that his friends are miserable comforters. 
  2. He tells them what he would say if the situation were reversed: “I would strengthen you with my mouth, and the comfort of my lips would relieve your grief.” (16:5) 
  3. His basic problem, however, is that God has “worn him out ” (16:7) and destroyed his family. He says that God has “shriveled me up,” (16:8), and has delivered him into the hands of the ungodly.
  4. But in the midst of his anguish, Job makes an amazing statement: “Surely even now my witness is in heaven, and He who testifies for me is on high!” (16:19) Who is this witness? Job does not know who this is, but it is clear that he knew that such a mediator existed. 
  5. Job’s hope was later fulfilled far beyond anything he could expect. Of course he could not understand it at the time, but we now know that the witness, the heavenly mediator, is Jesus Christ. 1 John 2:1 “But if anyone does sin, we have an advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous.” Jesus took the punishment that not only Job but also the whole world deserved.                        
  6. Job had these moments of amazing hope. It is almost as if God gave him hints of His complete salvation. But just as soon as Job has such an awareness, he reverts back to his pain and suffering.
  7. Once again his spirit is broken, and he can find no purpose in continuing to live. He believes that his end is coming near. 

Bildad speaks (18:1-21)

Bildad is clearly the most shallow of Job’s three friends. He now has lost all compassion and sees no hope for Job. He is very audacious when he tells Job to get some knowledge and understanding, and then we will talk! (18:2) He believes that Job has no understanding of the basic doctrines of God; but it is Bildad, ironically, who lacks knowledge. 

Bildad contends that the theological doctrines that everyone should know must never be challenged. His doctrine is based on law, not on grace; and even his attitude reveals that he considers the keeping of orthodox doctrine more important than ministering to a suffering brother.

He concludes that Job has been driven from light into darkness, which is the only place for the one who does not know God. Bildad has nothing new to say in his second speech. His only message is that evil will be punished.

Job has been devastated. Bildad says that “such are the dwellings of the unrighteous, such is the place of him who knows not God.” (18:21)

Some things to consider

1. How do you think Job and his three friends could have had a better conversation? How should they have changed their approach?

2. Consider Job’s reply to Eliphaz. Did you notice any element of hope in his reply?

3. Why was the cause of Bildad’s frustration with Job?

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욥기 제5과

욥기 15:1—18:21

욥과 친구들의 두 번째 변론 (Part A)

두 번째 변론 (A)

욥의 세 친구들의 태도는 두 번째 변론에서 극적으로 변합니다. 그들은 긍휼의 마음을 잃어버렸고 욥에대해 전혀 자비를 보이지 않습니다. 이것은 사랑하는 친구 욥의 고난을 위로하기 위한 사랑으로 그토록 먼길을 왔던 친구들이 얼마나 빨리 인내심을 잃고 위로자가 아닌 고발자로 변할 수 있는지를 보여줍니다. 이것이 그들을 악한 사람들로 만들지도 않았고, 절박한 심정으로 말하는 욥 또한 악한 것이 아닙니다. 

그렇다면 그들의 우정에 있어서 이처럼 명백한 가로막힘은 우정에 대해 무엇을 드러냅니까? 확실한 것은, 우정에 있어서 자비와 긍휼 항상 우선되어야 한다는 것입니다열린 마음으로 듣는  또한 우정에 있어서 중요합니다. 그러나 욥의 세 친구들은 욥의 고난에 대한 선입견을 가지고 있었습니다. 그들의 신학은깔끔하고 간결했습니다. 그들은 그들이 가진 인간적인 지식을 넘어서 나아가는 법을 알지 못했습니다.  

하나님은 자신이 누구이며, 그가 우리 삶에서 어떻게 일하시는지에 대한 욥의 이해를 넓혀 주고 계셨습니다. 그러나 욥은 하나님의 가르치는 방법을 소화해낼 수 없었습니다! 그리고 그의 친구들은 자신들의 인간적인 이해의 렌즈로만 욥을 보고 있었습니다. 이것이 친구가 고통을 겪고 있을 때 어떻게 서로 도와야 하는지에 대해 무엇을 말해 줍니까?

  1. 친구는 서로의 하나님에 대한 이해를 넓힐  있는 열린 마음을 가져야 합니다욥의 친구들은 하나님께서 욥에게 무언가 새로운 일을 행하고 계시다는 것을 알지 못한 것 같습니다. 그것은 욥에게만 아니라 그들 자신까지도 근본적으로 변화시켜 줄 일이었습니다. 그 결과로 욥과 친구들은 서로를 향한 커다란 분노로 대화를 맺게 되었습니다.  
  • 이것은 우정의  다른 특징을 드러냅니다우리는 서로의 생각이 충돌할 때에도 서로를 빨리 용서해야합니다. 우정에 있어서 판단주의 (judgmentalism)의 여지는 없습니다. 그들은 여전히 서로를 사랑했고, 우리는 하나님께서 결국에 그들의 우정을 회복시켜 주셨다는 것을 압니다. 그러나 하나님은 먼저 그들에게 서로 용서할 것을 요구하십니다. 물론 근본적인 문제는 고난에 대해 인간적인 논리로 줄 수 있는답이 없다는 것입니다. 분노한 욥이나 친구들 모두 그 진리를 인정할 수 없었습니다. 
  • 그들 안에 서로를 위해 기도할  있는 여지가 없었던 으로 보입니다. 우리는 그것을 두 번째와 세 번째 변론에서 볼 수 있습니다. 

엘리바스가 두 번째 변론을 시작합니다. 15:1-35

엘리바스에 관해 주목할 것들

  1. 그가 욥에게 처음 말할 때 보여주었던 인내심을 볼 수 없습니다. 그는 욥의 지혜를 인정하지만 하나님에대한 지식과 그가 어떻게 일하시는지에 대해 의문을 제기합니다. 
  • 그는 지금이 하나님께 도전하고, 친구들의 지혜를 수용하기를 거부하는 욥을 꾸짖을 때라고 믿었습니다. 그는 욥에게 하나님께서 거룩한 자들을 믿지 않으시고 천국이라도 그가 보시기에 부정한데 (의문스러운가정), 죄를 지은 사람에게는 그 신뢰가 얼마나 덜 하겠냐고 알려줍니다.  
  • 그는 구약의 모든 의로운 사람들에게 가장 중요하게 요구되었던 여호와를 경외하는 마음이 없다는 말로욥을 판단합니다. (엘리바스는 생각을 바뀐 것이 틀림없습니다. 왜냐하면 이전에 4:6절에서 욥에게 “네경외함이 네 자랑이 아니냐?”고 말했기 때문입니다.)
  • 그는 심지어 욥이 하나님을 묵상을 방해한다고 비난하기까지 합니다. 
  • 엘리바스는 욥을 뇌물을 받는 위선자로 부릅니다! (15:34)
  • 그리고 나서 그는 일반적인 악인들의 모습에 대해 이야기하기 시작합니다. 거의 설교와 같았고, 심지어욥에게 직접 이야기하지도 않습니다. 그는 욥의 원망을 무시하고, 단순히 욥을 악한 사람이라고 비난합니다. 
  • 마침내 그는 자신이 욥을 정죄하는 것이 아니라, 오히려 욥이 자신의 입으로 그를 정죄한 것이라는 것을유지함으로써 자기의 (self-righteousness)를 드러냅니다.  
  • 엘리바스는 확실히 정통적인 신앙을 가진 사람이었습니다. 그런데 그것은 하나님께서 친히 모든 사람들중에 가장 의로운 자로 말씀하신 친구의 고난에 대해 긍휼의 마음이 없는 냉정한 정통이었습니다. 

욥은 이제 그들의 삶의 토대가 되는 신학 체계에 도전합니다. 친구들은 어떻게 반응하고, 어떻게 욥을도와야 할지 몰랐기 때문에 자신을 방어하기 시작합니다. 

욥의 대답. 16:1-17:16

  1. 욥은 지금 완전히 혼자라고 느낍니다. 친구들은 그를 아주 죄악 되고 악한 사람처럼 여겼습니다. 그는 친구들을 재난을 주는 위로자라고 말합니다. 
  2. 그는 친구들에게 상황이 역전되면 자신이 어떻게 말할지 이야기합니다. “그래도 입으로 너희를 강하게하며 입술의 위로로 너희의 근심을 풀었으리라.” (16:5)
  3. 그러나 그의 기본적인 문제는 하나님께서 “그를 피로하게 하셨고” (16:7) 온 집안을 패망하게 하셨다는것입니다. 그는 하나님께서 “나를 시들게 하셨고” (16:8), 행악자의 손에 던지셨다고 말합니다. 
  4. 그렇지만 고통 속에서 욥은 놀라운 고백을 합니다. “지금 나의 증인이 하늘에 계시고 나의 중보자가 높은데 계시니라” (16:19) 이 증인이 누구입니까? 욥은 그가 누구인지 알지 못했지만, 그러한 중보자가 계시다는 것을 알고 있었다는 것은 분명합니다. 
  5. 욥의 소망은 나중에 그가 기대할 수 있는 것 이상으로 성취되었습니다. 물론 그는 당시에는 그것을 이해할 수 없었습니다. 그러나 우리는 지금 그 증인과 하늘의 중보자가 예수 그리스도이심을 알고 있습니다. 요한일서 2:1 “만일 누가 죄를 범하여도 아버지 앞에서 우리에게 대언자가 있으니 곧 의로우신 예수 그리스도시라.” 예수님은 욥뿐만 아니라 온 세상이 감당해야 할 저주를 담당하셨습니다.               
  6. 욥에게 이처럼 놀라운 소망의 순간이 찾아왔습니다. 그것은 하나님께서 거의 그의 완전한 구원에 대한힌트를 주신 것과 같았습니다. 그런데 그것을 깨닫자 마자 바로 욥은 고통과 고난으로 다시 돌아갔습니다. 
  7. 다시 한번 그의 영은 깨어졌고, 더 이상 계속해서 살아갈 목적을 찾을 수 없었습니다. 그는 자신의 마지막이 다가오고 있다고 믿었습니다.  

빌닷의 변론 (18:1-21)

빌닷은 세 친구들 중에서 가장 피상적인 이해를 가진 사람이었음이 분명합니다. 그는 지금 모든 자비와긍휼을 잃어버렸고, 욥에게서 어떤 소망도 보지 못합니다. 그는 욥에게 아주 안하무인으로 깨달으라  후에야 우리가 말하리라!”고 이야기합니다. (18:2) 그는 욥이 하나님에 대한 기본적인 교리를 이해하지 못한다고 믿었습니다. 그런데 역설적이게도, 그 지식이 부족한 사람은 빌닷이엇습니다. 

빌닷은 모두가 알아야 할 신학적 교리는 절대로 도전받아서는 안 된다고 고집스럽게 주장합니다. 그의교리는 은혜가 아니라 율법에 기초한 것이었고, 심지어 그의 태도조차도 고난 받는 형제에게 위로하고 섬기는 것보다 정통 교리를 지키는 것을 더 중요하게 생각한다는 것을 드러냅니다. 

그는 욥이 광명에서 하나님을 알지 못하는 사람의 처소인 흑암으로 쫓겨갔다고 결론짓습니다. 빌닷은두 번째 변론에서 새로운 무언가를 말하지 않았습니다. 그의 유일한 메시지는 악한 자는 벌을 받는다는 것입니다. 

욥은 망연자실해 있습니다. 빌닷은 “참으로 불의한 자의 집이 이러하고 하나님을 알지 못하는 자의 처소도 이러하니라” (18:21)고 말합니다. 

생각해 볼 내용들

1. 어떻게 하면 욥과 세 친구들이 더 나은 대화를 할 수 있었다고 생각하십니까? 그들의 접근 방식은 어떻게 바뀌어야 했습니까?

2. 엘리바스에 대한 욥의 대답을 묵상해 보십시오. 그의 대답에서 소망의 어떤 요소들을 발견하셨습니까? 

3. 욥에 대한 빌닷의 불만의 원인은 무엇이었습니까? 

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Job Lesson Four

Job 10:1—14:22

First Cycle of Arguments Between Job and His Friends (Part B)

First Cycle of Arguments (B)

Job’s Plea to God (10:1—22) 

After responding to Bildad, Job then makes a desperate plea to God (10:1—22). He begins by loathing his life, and returning to his original question of “why.” “Let me know why you contend against me.” (10:2) He actually challenges God by saying that He knows he is not guilty. Job comes very close to speaking heretically about God, when he reminds God that although He had created him in a wondrous way and granted him steadfast love, His purpose from the beginning was to punish and destroy him. (10:11-13) He asks God to leave him alone, that he might find a little cheer before he goes to the land of complete darkness. (10:20-22)

Zophar now speaks. (11:1—20)

Things to notice about Zophar:

  1. Zophar is the least sympathetic of all 3 friends. He actually says to Job, “God exacts from you less than your iniquity deserves.” (11:6) 
  2. He considers himself to be a very rational theologian. 
  3. He considers Job’s problem to be ignorance of proper doctrine. He wishes Job knew the “deep things of God.” (11:7-9) He gives 4 dimensions of the deep things of God:
    1. Higher than heaven – what can you do?
    1. Deeper than Sheol – what can you know?
    1. Longer than the earth 
    1. Broader than the sea                                                                                He concludes with an ironic statement. Just as a wild donkey cannot be born as a man, in the same way a stupid man will never get understanding.
  4. It is clear that Zophar is trying to teach good theology, but it is also clear that he has no empathy for Job. More than the other two friends, Zophar lacks mercy and compassion. Zophar did not even realize that he was giving the 4 dimensions of God’s love, which does indeed surpass human understanding. It would have been wonderful if the apostle Paul could have interrupted Zophar’s speech here to explain God’s love. (Ephesians 3:14-19) God’s love is:
    1. High – God raises us up to greater heights than we can imagine.
    1. Deep – God’s love is deeper than hell. He destroys all of Satan’s plans, and walks with us through times of deepest darkness.
    1. Long – God’s love began before the world was created and will never end. He holds us always in His hands.
    1. Wide – God holds the whole world in His hands.

We spoke in the introduction of the need for collective wisdom in understanding the suffering of the righteous. This is true concerning God’s love in the midst of suffering. One person will see the high love, the redeeming love of God in the midst of suffering. Another will see the deep love, how God meets us in the deep darkness of despair when we suffer. Others may see God’s long love, and understand the larger thing God is doing in allowing our suffering. Still others will see the wide love of God and His enlarging us through our suffering to make us able to minister to a world in pain.

  • Zophar attempts to give Job hope by telling him to repent, and then his life would be brighter than the noonday sun. He would walk again in hope.

Job responds. 12:1—14:22

He does not bother to respond to Zophar alone; rather, he responds to all three friends together.  

This is an important speech. First, he answers his friends (12:2 – 13:16); then, in 13:17 – 14:22, he talks to God. Notice how the movement of Job’s speech gradually moves away from his friends and towards God. He basically is saying that he does not want to hear any more of what they have to say; he wants to speak to God Himself.

Job begins with a very sarcastic remark. “You guys are the only intelligent ones. Wisdom will die with you.” But he does know something that they do not know: It is possible for a righteous person to suffer. It is also possible that the wicked deeds of sinners will go unpunished, and that God will even bless them. 

He says they have a very simplistic understanding of the way God works. (12:13 – 25) Job speaks of God having all power, not only to build but also to destroy and tear down. God has power to make nations great and power to destroy them. He brings salvation, and He corrects injustice.

13:1 – 28 is one of the most important passages in the Book of Job. 

Job begins by telling his friends that he already knows everything they are telling him. He is saying, “I’ve seen it all. I am not inferior to you.” He lays out his plans for what he wants to say to God, and he wants his friends to hear what he would say. He wants to argue his case with God. 

13:6 – “Hear now my argument . . .” He is saying this so that they will stop misrepresenting God. In vs. 9, he asks his friends if it would go well with them if God were to examine them. His 3 friends’ conclusions were the same, but each of their sources of knowledge was different. Eliphaz claims that he received his knowledge supernaturally. Bildad got his understanding from teaching he had heard in the past. Zophar based his conclusions on his own theological study. But Job is saying that they do not understand God.

13:15 is the central idea of chapter 13. And it is a verse that Bible translators disagree on. Some translations read “See, He will kill me, I have no hope.” (NRSV, Korean 개혁개정) Most other translations read, “Though He slay me, yet I will hope in Him.” The problem with the former translation is that Job says he has no hope. But in verses 16 and 18, Job does profess his hope. In verse 16, Job says, “I know that this will turn out for my salvation.” Job is saying, “God may kill me for arguing with Him, but I know God will be faithful.” We can conclude that the text of Job 13:15 should read, “Though He slay me, I will hope in Him.” (ESV and other translations).

13:20—24 – Because he has hope, Job asks 2 things of God: that God would remove His punishment from him, and that God would call to him so that he could answer. Job cannot understand God, and he is seeking relief. In verse 15, rather than saying that he has no hope, he is re-affirming his trust in God even though he cannot understand Him. 

14:13 Job prays to God. “Oh that You would hide me in Sheol, that you would conceal me until Your wrath be past, that You would appoint for me a set time, and remember me!” “Sheol” does not mean hell; in the Old Testament, it is the place where people rest after they die.

14:14—17 Job asks a big question and then expresses his great hope in God: “If a man dies, shall he live again?” Job is seeking a new intimacy with God. 14:15 expresses it beautifully: “You would call, and I would answer. You would earnestly long for the work of Your hands.” He longs for God to not watch over his sin, but as a Father, with His loving eye, to watch over his steps, and forgive his sins. 

14:18—22 But then Job falls once again into despair. This leads to the second cycle of arguments. 

Some things to consider

1. Do you think Job’s complaining to God was a sin? Take some time to read through the Psalms and observe how the psalmist complained to God. Is it possible to complain to God without complaining to other people? 

2. How do you understand Zophar’s 4-dimensional “deep things of God?” Does Paul’s description of the 4-dimensions of God’s love help you understand suffering? If so, in what ways? 

3. What enabled Job to trust God even in the midst of suffering? 

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욥기 제4과

욥기 10:1—14:22

욥과 친구들의 첫 번째 변론 (Part B)

 번째 변론 (B)

하나님을 향한 욥의 간청(10:1—22)

빌닷에게 반응한 뒤 욥은 하나님께 간절히 탄원합니다. (10:1-22) 그는 자신의 삶에 대한 증오로 시작해서, “왜?”라는 원래의 질문으로 돌아갑니다. “무슨 까닭으로 나와 더불어 변론하시는지 내게 알게 하옵소서.” (10:2) 그는 하나님께서 그에게 죄가 없다는 것을 알고 있다고 말함으로써 하나님께 도전합니다. 그가하나님께 그를 놀라운 방법으로 창조하시고 변함없는 사랑을 베푸셨음에도 불구하고 하나님의 목적은 처음부터 자신을 저주하고 멸하려고 하셨던 것이라고 말할 때는 하나님에 대해 거의 이단처럼 말할 뻔했습니다. (10:11-13) 그는 어둡고 죽음의 그늘진 땅으로 가기 전에 잠시나마 평안할 수 있도록 자신을 홀로 내버려두어 달라고 하나님께 간구합니다. (10:20-22)

소발이 이제 말하기 시작합니다. (11:1-20) 

소발에 관해 주목할 만한 내용들:

  1. 소발은 세 친구들 중에 가장 동정심이 적은 사람이었습니다. 그는 실제로 “하나님께서 너로 하여금 너의죄를 잊게 하여 주셨음을 알라”고 욥에게 말했습니다. (11:6)
  2. 그는 자신이 아주 이성적인 신학자라고 생각했습니다. 
  3. 그는 욥의 문제가 올바른 교리에 대한 무지라고 여겼습니다. 그는 욥이 “하나님의 오묘함” (11:7-9)을 알게 되기를 원했습니다. 그는 하나님의 오묘함의 4가지 범주를 제시합니다.  
  4. 하늘보다 높은– 네가 무엇을 하겠느냐?
  5. 스올보다 깊은 – 네가 어찌 알겠느냐?
  6. 땅보다 긴
  7. 바다보다 넓은

그는 비꼬는 듯한 진술로 결론을 맺습니다. 야생 들나귀가 사람을 낳을 수 없는 것처럼, 어리석은 사람은 결코 지혜를 얻을 수 없다고 말입니다. 

  • 소발이 좋은 신학을 가르치려 했다는 것은 명백합니다. 그러나 그가 욥에게 공감하지 못하고 있다는 것또한 분명합니다. 소발은 다른 두 친구들보다 더 자비와 긍휼이 부족했습니다. 소발은 자신이 인간의 이해를 뛰어넘는 하나님의 사랑의 네 가지 범주를 제시하고 있다는 것조차 깨닫지 못했습니다. 사도 바울이 여기서 소발이 말하는 것을 가로막고 하나님의 사랑을 설명해 주었더라면 좋았을 뻔했습니다. (에베소서 3:14-19) 하나님의 사랑은 이와 같습니다:
  • 높이 – 하나님은 우리를 우리가 상상하는 것보다 훨씬 높이 우리를 끌어올리십니다. 
  • 깊이 – 하나님의 사랑은 지옥보다 깊습니다. 그분은 사탄의 모든 계획을 멸하시고, 가장 깊은 어둠의 시간 동안 우리와 동행하십니다. 
  • 길이 – 하나님의 사랑은 세상이 창조되기 전에 시작되었으며 결코 끝나지 않을 것입니다. 그분은항상 우리를 그분의 손으로 붙잡고 계십니다.  
  • 넓이 – 하나님은 그의 손으로 온 세상을 붙들고 계십니다. 

우리는 의인이 받는 고난을 이해하기 위해 집단적인 공동의 지혜가 필요하다는 것을 서론에서 이야기했습니다. 고난 중에 역사하시는 하나님의 사랑에 대해서는 더욱 그렇습니다. 어떤 사람은 고난 중에 높은 사랑, 즉 우리를 구속하시는 사랑을 알게 될 것입니다. 다른 사람은 깊은 사랑, 즉 절망의 깊은 어둠 속에서 어떻게 하나님께서 우리를 만나 주시는지 알게 될 것입니다. 또 다른 사람들은 하나님의 길고 긴 사랑을 알게되고, 하나님께서 고난을 허락하시는 중에 행하시는 더 큰 일을 이해하게 될 것입니다. 그리고 또 다른 사람은 하나님의 넓은 사랑을 알게 될 것이며, 고난을 통해 우리를 확장시키셔서 우리로 하여금 세상의 고통 가운데서 사역할 수 있게 하시는 것을 경험하게 될 것입니다. 

  • 소발은 회개하라고 욥에게 이야기함으로써 소망을 주려고 시도했습니다. 그러면 그의 삶이 한낮의 태양보다 더 밝게 될 것이라고 말했습니다. 욥이 소망 가운데 다시 걷게 될 것이라고 말입니다. 

Job responds. 12:1—14:22

 반응. 12:1-14:22

욥은 소발에게만 대답하려고 하지 않았고, 오히려 세 친구들 모두에게 함께 반응합니다. 

이것은 중요한 변론입니다. 첫째, 그는 친구들에게 응답했습니다. (12:2-13:16) 그리고 나서 13:17-14:22절에서 하나님과 이야기합니다. 욥의 이야기의 움직임이 어떻게 그의 친구들에서 점점 멀어져서 하나님께로 향하게 되는지에 주목하십시오. 그는 기본적으로 그들이 말하는 것을 더 이상 듣지 않고 싶다고말합니다. 그는 하나님과 직접 대화하기 원했습니다. 

욥은 아주 비꼬는 말로 시작합니다. “너희가 참으로 백성이로구나 너희가 죽으면 지혜도 죽겠구나.” 그런데 그는 그들이 모르는 것을 알고 있었습니다. 그것은 의로운 사람이 고난을 받을 수 있다는 것이었습니다. 죄인들의 악한 행위 또한 저주받지 않을 수 있고, 하나님께서 그들을 축복하기까지 할 수도 있다는 것입니다.  

그는 친구들이 하나님의 일하시는 방식에 대해 매우 단순한 이해만 가지고 있다고 말합니다. (12:13-25) 욥은 하나님께서 지으실 뿐 아니라 멸하시고 헐어내실 수 있는 모든 능력을 가지셨다고 말합니다. 하나님은 민족들을 커지게도 하시고 다시 멸하실 수 있는 능력을 가지셨습니다. 그는 구원을 가져오시며, 불의를 바로 잡으십니다. 

13:1-28은 욥기에서 가장 중요한 구절들 중 하나입니다. 

욥은 친구들에게 그들이 자신에게 말한 모든 것을 이미 알고 있다고 말하면서 시작합니다. 그는 “너희아는 것을 나도 아노니 너희만 못하지 않으니라.”고 말합니다. 그는 하나님께 하고자 하는 말이 무엇인지에대한 그의 계획을 펼쳐 보입니다. 그리고 그가 하고자 하는 말을 친구들이 듣기를 원합니다. 그는 자신의 상황을 놓고 하나님과 변론하기 원합니다. 

13:6 – “너희는 나의 변론을 들으며… “ 그는 그들이 하나님에 대해 왜곡해서 말하는 것을 막기 위해이렇게 말합니다. 9절에서 그는 친구들에게 하나님이 너희를 감찰하시면 좋겠느냐고 묻습니다. 세 친구들의 결론은 같았지만, 그들의 지식의 원천은 제각각 달랐습니다. 엘리바스는 그의 지식을 초자연적으로 받았다고 주장했습니다. 빌닷은 전에 그가 들었던 교훈으로부터 이해를 얻었다고 합니다. 소발은 자기 자신의신학적 연구를 기반으로 결론을 내렸습니다. 그러나 욥은 그들이 하나님을 이해하지 못한다고 말하고 있습니다. 

13:15절은 13장의 핵심 개념입니다. 그리고 이 절은 성경 번역가들이 동의하지 않는 구절입니다. 어떤번역본은 “그가 나를 죽이시리니 내가 희망이 없노라”고 번역합니다. (개역개정판) 대부분의 다른 번역은“그가 나를 죽이실지라도, 나는 그에게 소망을 두노라. (Though He slay me, yet I will hope in Him.)”고 번역합니다. 처음 번역본 (개역개정판)의 문제는 욥이 자기에게 소망이 없다고 말했다는 데 있습니다. 그런데 16절과 18절에서 욥은 소망을 공언합니다. 16절에서 욥은 “이것이 나의 구원이 되리라”고 말합니다. 욥은 “하나님께서 내가 그와 변론한 것으로 인해 나를 죽이실 수 있지만, 그렇다 해도 하나님은 신실하신 분임을 안다”고 말하고 있습니다. “그가 나를 죽이실지라도, 나는 그에게 소망을 두노라. (Though He slay me, yet I will hope in Him.)” (ESV및 기타 번역본)

13:20-24 – 욥은 소망이 있었기 때문에 하나님께 두 가지를 요구합니다. 자신을 향한 그분의 저주를제하여 주시기를, 그리고 하나님께서 그를 부르셔서 그가 응답할 수 있기를 구합니다. 욥은 하나님을 이해할 수 없었으며, 하나님께서 그를 구원해 주시기를 구했습니다. 15절에서 그는 소망이 없다고 말하는 것이아니라, 비록 하나님을 이해할 수 없지만 하나님을 신뢰한다는 것을 재확인했습니다.  

14:13 욥은 하나님께 기도합니다. “주는 나를 스올에 감추시며 주의 진노를 돌이키실 때까지 나를 숨기시고 나를 위하여 규례를 정하시고 나를 기억하옵소서!” (한국어 번역) “스올은 지옥을 의미하지 않습니다. 구약에서 말하는 스올은 사람들이 죽고 나서 쉬는 곳입니다. 

14:14-17 욥은 큰 질문을 하고 나서 하나님에 대한 큰 소망을 표현합니다. “장정이라도 죽으면 어찌 다시 살리이까?” 욥은 하나님과의 새로운 친밀감을 구하고 있습니다. 14:15절은 그것을 아름답게 표현합니다. “주께서는 나를 부르시겠고 나는 대답하겠나이다 주께서는 주의 손으로 지으신 것을 기다리시겠나이다.” 그는 하나님께서 그의 죄를 감찰하지 않으시기를 간절히 바랍니다. 그러면서도, 사랑의 눈으로, 아버지로서 그의 걸음을 지켜 주시고, 그의 죄를 용서해 주시기를 간구합니다. 

14:18-22 그렇지만 그리고 나서 욥은 다시 한번 절망에 빠집니다. 이것은 두 번째 변론으로 이어집니다. 

생각해 볼 것들

1. 욥이 하나님께 불평한 것이 죄였다고 생각하십니까? 시편을 읽으면서 시편 기자가 하나님께 어떻게불평하고 원망했는지를 관찰하십시오. 다른 사람에게 불평하지 않으면서 하나님께 불평하는 것이 가능합니까?

2. 소발이 말한 “하나님의 오묘함” 의 네 가지 범주에 대해 어떻게 이해하십니까? 바울이 하나님의 사랑의 네 가지 범주에 대해 묘사한 것이 고난을 이해하는 데 도움을 줍니까? 만일 그렇다면, 어떤 도움을 주었습니까?

3. 무엇이 욥으로 하여금 고난 중에도 하나님을 신뢰하도록 해 주었습니까?

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Job Lesson Three

Job 4:1—9:35

First Cycle of Arguments Between Job and His Friends (Part A)

First Cycle of Arguments (A)

Shocked by Job’s response to his suffering, his three friends began to speak. They tried to reason with Job, and to instruct him in the ways of God. There are three cycles of arguments, which form the largest section of the Book of Job (Chapters 4:1—31:40) 

At times, Job’s friends try to encourage and console him. At other times, they accuse him. In the beginning, they all offer hope, but at the end they only accuse him and attack him. But we must remember, they are not Job’s enemies; they are his good friends who came to comfort him. The problem is that they had no solution. As we study these three cycles of his dialogue with his friends, try to put yourself in the position of each person speaking, perhaps even imagining how you would comfort Job if you had been there. 

Eliphaz spoke first. He was the oldest of the friends. In chapter 42, when God speaks to the friends, He calls only Eliphaz by name; so he was clearly the leader. 

Things to notice about Eliphaz

  1. Eliphaz begins with a gentle reproof of Job, reminding Job that his fear of the Lord should give him confidence. He tried to teach Job that man is born to trouble, and that we must accept it. He is speaking like a wise counselor. But even while he is encouraging Job, he begins to accuse Job of lack of trust in God.
  • He begins to mildly rebuke Job by reminding him that no one who is innocent perishes. (4:7-8) He is no longer a counselor, but decides to speak as a wise theologian. Eliphaz is very orthodox in his belief. Of course his orthodoxy was a strict adherence to the law. Consider how Job must have felt as he listened to Eliphaz. He is in complete agony. He has lost everything, all of his children; he is in great physical pain. Even worse, he now feels that the God whom he had faithfully served has now turned against him.  
  • Eliphaz then says (4:12), “Now a word was secretly brought to me.” He said that a deep vision came to him while he slept. Ch. 4:15-16 describes it: “A spirit glided past my face; the hair of my flesh stood up.” Then he heard a voice: “Can a mortal be more righteous than God?”   He believed that he was so important that God would whisper a secret to him about Job.
  • Beginning in chapter 5, Eliphaz begins to be judgmental of Job. He is now insensitive towards Job. At the same time, he tries to empathize: If it were me, I would seek God and commit my cause to Him. (5:8) He even goes so far as to say that happy is the man whom God chastens. But he is clearly judgmental. He speaks like an orthodox legal theologian. He reminds Job of orthodox doctrine – that is, the orthodox teaching of the law. And he lectures him on the benefit of God’s chastisement. 
  • Summary of Eliphaz’s speech: Since Job has lived a faithful life, none of these calamities should have happened to him. But since they did happen, Job should seek God and ask for forgiveness. He assures Job that many blessings will follow God’s chastisement. In 5:27, he speaks for all 3 friends and says, “we have searched it out; it is true. Hear, and know it is for your good.”

Eliphaz is very shallow in his theology. He does not understand the ways of God, and he cannot believe that Job is a godly man.

Job responds (6:1) that his life is nothing more than a breath, and that he will speak in the anguish of his spirit, that he will complain in the bitterness of his soul. He admits that he has spoken recklessly to God, and that he may have been irreverent in his speech. But he insists that he has not spoken anything evil. He only asks that God would either crush him and destroy him, or teach him about why these terrible things are happening. Job insinuates that all three friends are afraid of these terrible things because they cannot explain them in their neat orthodox framework (6:21).

Job is at the same time broken before God but also defiant. He says, in 7:11, “I will complain in the bitterness of my soul.”  He calls God the “watcher of mankind.” (7:20) Job twists Scripture when he uses Psalm 8 — “What is man, that you are mindful of him?” In Psalm 8, the psalmist marvels at God’s lowering Himself to speak so highly of man. But Job misuses the psalm and asks God why He visits man every morning and tests him every moment. Job ends his response by ask God why He does not forgive whatever sin he may have. 

Bildad (8:1) now speaks. 

Things to notice about Bildad 

  1. Bildad believes that suffering is God’s punishment for sin, and that Job’s children’s deaths were proof that they had sinned.  
  • Since Job has not died, his sin must not be as serious. So all he has to do is repent, and he will be restored. “After all,” he said, “if you were pure and right, God would prosper you.” (8:6) Bildad’s remarks in 8:4-6 are filled with irony.
  • Bildad is insensitive to Job and his situation. He is shockingly blunt when he speaks. Everything he says is straightforward – “You reap what you sow.”
  • He agrees with Eliphaz that no man can be righteous before God; but then he tells him that he should be pure and righteous. 
  • But Bildad closes with hope. “God will not reject you if you repent. He will yet fill your mouth with laughter.” (v. 21)
  • Bildad’s three speeches in this book reveal that he has only a shallow knowledge of God and how He works. He is trying to help Job, but he judges him because he cannot believe that Job is a godly man. 

Job responds. (9:1—35) 

Job responds with his strongest questions yet. He is overwhelmed with a feeling of powerlessness. He feels trapped. He even begins to accuse God of wanting to destroy him.  

He responds first to Bildad (9:1—35). His opening remarks to Bildad are filled with irony. “But how can a man be in the right before God? If one wished to contend with Him, one could not answer Him once in a thousand times.” ((9:2-3) He reveals to Bildad his intense frustration that “God has passed me by, and I see Him not. (9:11) This is Job’s big question to Bildad: “How can a man be righteous before God?”

He knows that Bildad cannot answer his question, because he believes that God is not here to bless him, but rather to accuse him. He says that even if he were in the right and God was wrong, he could not answer God, because God is too powerful for a human to answer Him. God is in complete control. He concludes by saying, “I must appeal for mercy to my accuseror judge. (The Hebrew word carries both meanings). (9:15) He even said, “If I called and He answered me, I would not believe that He was listening to my voice.” (9:16) 

Job’s agony is that he believes God is accusing him, even though he is righteous. He cannot call to God and expect an answer, because God is not a man that he could reason with Him. Job’s greatest longing was for a mediator between him and God. “Would that there was an arbiter/mediator between us, who might lay his hand on us both!” (9:32-33)

The Hebrew word for “mediator” [mokiakh] does not mean a judge, but rather one who settles a dispute by reconciliation, done by laying his hands on both parties as a mutual friend. [This is a foreshadowing of Jesus, the one Mediator between God and man.]

This is the first time Job mentions a mediator, and we will see later that he develops this theme, and actually comes to believe that there is a mediator.

Some things to consider

 1. How would you describe Eliphaz? As a friend? As a counselor? As a theologian? How do you understand Job’s response to Eliphaz?

2. How would you evaluate Bildad’s argument? What was his difficulty in relating to Job? Can you identify with Job in his response to Bildad? 

3. Have you ever felt somewhat like Job, about your own sufferings, or those of the world? Have you seen the incredible suffering in North Korea, or the horrible persecution of Christians in nations around the world today, and asked the question, “Where is God? Why does He not intervene for the sake of the righteous?”

4. How have you responded to the intense suffering of so many righteous people in the world today? How do you think Job understood the concept of “mediator” in regard to his own suffering?

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욥기 재3과

욥기 4:1-9:35

욥과 친구들의 첫 번째 변론 (Part A)

 번째 변론 (A)

고난을 대하는 욥의 반응에 놀란 세 친구들은 말을 꺼내기 시작합니다. 그들은 욥을 설득하려 했고, 하나님에 대해서 가르치려 했습니다. 세 차례에 걸쳐 진행된 그들의 변론은 욥기에서 가장 큰 부분을 차지합니다. (4:1-31:40) 

때로, 욥의 친구들은 욥을 격려하고 위로하려고 했습니다. 어떤 때는 그를 비난했습니다. 처음에 그들모두는 소망을 주지만, 결국에 가서는 욥을 비난하고 공격하기만 했습니다. 그럼에도 우리가 기억해야 하는것은 그들이 욥의 적이 아니었다는 것입니다. 그들은 욥을 위로하러 왔던 좋은 친구들입니다. 문제는 그들에게 해결책이 없었다는 데 있습니다. 우리가 세 차례에 걸쳐 이어지는 욥과 친구들의 대화를 공부하는 동안 각각의 말하는 사람들의 입장에 서도록 노력해 보십시오. 욥이 거기 있었다면 어떻게 그를 위로할 것인지도 상상해 보시기 바랍니다.  

엘리바스가 먼저 이야기를 시작합니다. 그는 가장 큰 어른이었습니다. 42장에서 친구들에게 말씀하실때, 하나님은 엘리바스의 이름만 불렀습니다. 그것은 그가 그들 중 리더였음을 명확히 보여줍니다. 

엘리바스에 관해 주목할 내용들

  1. 엘리바스는 욥에 대한 온화한 책망으로 시작해서, 하나님을 경외하는 욥의 마음이 그에게 확신을 줄 것임을 상기시킵니다. 그는 욥에게 사람은 고생을 위해 태어났고, 우리는 그것을 받아들여야만 한다고 가르치려 했습니다. 그는 지혜로운 조언자처럼 말했습니다. 그렇지만 욥을 격려하는 중에도 하나님에 대한신뢰가 부족하다고 욥에 대해 비난하기 시작했습니다. 
  • 그는 죄 없이 망한 사람은 아무도 없다는 것 (4:7-8)을 욥에게 떠올리게 하면서 부드럽게 그를 꾸짖기 시작합니다. 그는 더 이상 조언자가 아니었으며, 현명한 신학자처럼 말하기로 결심합니다. 엘리바스는 아주 정통적인 신앙의 소유자였습니다. 물론 그가 따르는 정통성은 율법을 엄격하게 고수하는 것이었습니다. 엘리바스의 말을 들을 때 욥이 어떤 감정을 느꼈을지 생각해 보십시오. 그는 철저한 고통 속에 있었습니다. 그는 모든 자녀를 포함한 모든 것을 잃었습니다. 더 심각한 것은, 그가 신실하게 섬겨 왔던 하나님이 이제 그에게서 돌아섰다고 느끼고 있다는 사실입니다.  
  • 엘리바스는 이렇게 말했습니다. (4:12) “어떤 말씀이 내게 가만히 이르고 …” 그는 잠들 즈음에 깊은 환상이 임했다고 말했습니다. 욥기 4:15-16절은 그것을 이렇게 묘사합니다. “그의 입김이 나의 얼굴을 스치자  몸에 소름이 끼쳤네.” (북한성경 번역) 그리고 나서 그는 이런 목소리를 들었습니다. 사람이 어찌 하나님보다 의롭겠느냐?” 그는 하나님께서 욥에 대한 비밀한 것을 속삭이며 말씀하실 정도로 자신이중요한 사람이라고 믿었습니다. 
  • 5장부터 엘리바스는 욥을 판단하기 시작합니다. 그는 이제 욥에 대해 무감각해져버렸습니다. 동시에 그는 “나라면 하나님을 찾겠고 내 일을 하나님께 의탁하리라” (5:8)고 힘주어 말했습니다. 그는 심지어 하나님께 징계받는 자가 복이 있다고 말하기에 이르렀습니다. 그러나 그는 확실히 비판적이었습니다. 그는정통 율법 신학자처럼 말했습니다. 그는 욥에게 정통적인 교리, 즉 율법의 정통적인 가르침을 상기시켰습니다. 그리고 하나님의 징계를 통해 받는 유익에 대해 욥을 가르치기 시작했습니다. 
  • 엘리바스의 변론에 대한 요약: 욥이 성실하게 살아왔기 때문에 지금 겪고 있는 어떤 재앙도 그에게 일어나지 말았어야 했다. 그러나 재앙이 임했기 때문에 욥은 하나님을 찾고 용서를 구해야만 한다. 그는 욥에게 하나님의 징계하심 뒤에 많은 복이 뒤따를 것이라고 장담했다. 5:27절에서 그는 세 친구 모두를 대표해서 이렇게 말했다. 우리가 연구한 바가 이와 같으니 너는 들어 보라 그러면 네가 알리라.”

엘리바스의 신학은 아주 피상적인 것이었습니다. 그는 하나님의 방법을 이해하지 못했고, 욥이 경건한사람이라는 것을 믿을 수 없었습니다. 

은 (6:1) 자신의 생명이 숨결에 지나지 않으며, 그 영의 괴로움 속에서 말하고, 영혼의 괴로움 속에서불평할 것이라고 반응합니다. 그는 하나님께 경솔하게 말했으며, 자신의 말이 경건하지 못했을 수 있음을인정합니다. 그렇지만 그는 악한 말을 하지 않았다고 주장합니다. 그는 단지 하나님께 자신을 멸하시고 끊어 달라고 구했고, 왜 이처럼 참혹한 일들이 벌어졌는지 가르쳐 달라고 요청할 뿐이었습니다. 욥은 세 친구들 모두가 이 참혹한 일들을 두려워하고 있음을 넌지시 말합니다. 그들의 정돈된 정통의 틀로는 설명할 수없었기 때문입니다. (6:21)

욥은 하나님 앞에서 깨어진 마음이었지만 동시에 반항하기도 했습니다. 그는 7:11절에서  마음의 괴로움 때문에 불평하리이다라고 말합니다. 그는 하나님을 “사람을 감찰하시는 이” (7:20)로 부릅니다. 욥은시편 8편에 기록된 “사람이 무엇이기에 주께서 그를 생각하시며” 라는 말씀을 비틀어서 말합니다. 시편 8편에서 시편 기자는 하나님께서 자신을 낮추시고 인간을 그처럼 높이시는 것에 감탄합니다. 그러나 욥은 이시편을 잘못 사용하고 있으며, 또한 왜 하나님께서 매일 아침 찾아오셔서 매 순간 그를 시험하시는지 묻습니다. 욥은 하나님께 왜 자신이 어떤 죄를 지었든지 그 죄를 용서해주지 않으시는지 질문함으로써 그의 반론을 끝맺습니다.  

빌닷이 (8:1) 이제 이야기를 시작합니다. 

빌닷에 관해 주목할 내용들

  1. 빌닷은, 고난은 죄에 대한 하나님의 징계이며, 욥의 자녀들의 죽음은 그들이 죄를 지었다는 증거라고 믿습니다. 
  • 욥이 죽지 않았기 때문에 그의 죄는 그렇게 심각하지 않다고 생각했습니다. 그래서 그가 해야 할 일은 회개 뿐이며, 그러면 회복될 것이라고 믿었습니다. 그는 “또 청결하고 정직하면 반드시 너를 돌보시고 네의로운 처소를 평안하게 하실 것이라.” (8:6)고 말합니다. 8:4-6절에서의 빌닷의 말들은 비꼬는 말로 가득 차 있습니다.  
  • 빌닷은 욥과 그가 처한 상황에 대해 민감하지 못했습니다. 그가 말하는 것을 보면 충격적일 정도로 둔감했습니다. 그가 하는 모든 말들은 직설적이었고, “뿌린 대로 거둔다”는 말로 요약될 수 있습니다. 
  • 그는 하나님 앞에서 의인은 없다는 엘리바스의 말에 동의했습니다. 그렇지만 그리고 나서 그는 욥에게청결하고 정직해야만 한다고 이야기합니다. 
  • 그렇지만 빌닷은 소망으로 그의 변론을 마무리합니다. “웃음을 네 입에, 즐거운 소리를 네 입술에 채우시리니.” (21절)
  • 욥기에 나오는 빌닷의 세 번의 변론들은 그가 하나님에 대한 지식과 그가 일하는 방식에 대해 피상적인지식만을 가지고 있는 사람임을 드러냅니다. 그는 욥을 돕고자 했지만, 욥이 경건한 사람이라는 것을 믿을 수 없었기 때문에 그를 판단합니다. 

욥의 반론 (9:1-35)

욥은 여전히 강한 질문으로 반응합니다. 그는 무력감에 휩싸여 있고, 갇혀 있다고 느낍니다. 심지어 그는 하나님께서 자신을 멸하기 원하신다고 비난하기 시작합니다. 

그는 먼저 빌닷에게 대답합니다. (9:1-35) 빌닷을 향한 그의 첫마디는 냉소적인 말로 가득 찼습니다. “인생이 어찌 하나님 앞에 의로우랴? 사람이 하나님께 변론하기를 좋아할지라도 천 마디에 한 마디도 대답하지 못하리라.” (9:2-3) 그는 빌닷에게 “그가 내 앞으로 지나시나 내가 보지 못하며” (9:11)라고 말하면서그의 극심한 좌절감을 드러냅니다. 빌닷을 향한 욥의 가장 큰 질문은 이것이었습니다. “인생이 어찌 하나님앞에 의로우랴?”

그는 빌닷이 그의 질문에 답할 수 없다는 것을 알았습니다. 왜냐하면 그가 하나님께서 욥을 축복하기 위해 여기 계신 것이 아니라 고발하기 위해서 오셨다고 믿기 때문입니다. 그는 그가 옳았고 하나님이 틀렸을지라도, 하나님은 인간이 감히 대답할 수 없을 만큼 강하신 분이기 때문에 하나님께 대답할 수 없다고 말합니다. 하나님께서 완전히 지배하고 계시기 때문입니다. 그는 이렇게 말함으로써 결론을 맺습니다. “가령 내가 의로울지라도 대답하지 못하겠고 나를 심판하실 그에게 간구할 뿐이며” (9:15) 그는 이렇게 말하기까지했습니다. “가령 내가 그를 부르므로 그가 내게 대답하셨을지라도 내 음성을 들으셨다고는 내가 믿지 아니하리라.” (9:16)

욥의 고통은 자신이 의롭다 해도 하나님께서 그를 참소하고 계시다고 믿고 있는 것이었습니다. 하나님은 사람들처럼 이치를 따지며 설득할 수 있는 분이 아니시기 때문에 하나님을 부를 수 없었고, 그의 대답을기대할 수 없었습니다. 욥의 가장 큰 갈망은 그와 하나님 사이의 중재자 (mediator)가 임하는 것이었습니다. “하나님은 나처럼 사람이 아니신즉 내가 그에게 대답할 수 없으며 함께 들어가 재판을 할 수도 없고 우리 사이에 손을 얹을 판결자(arbiter/mediator)도 없구나.” (9:32-33)

히브리어 단어 “중재자” (mediator [mokiakh])는 재판관을 의미하지 않으며, 두 당사자 모두의 친구로서  양쪽 모두에게 손을 얹어서  화해하게 함으로써 분쟁을 해결하는 사람을 의미합니다. 한국어로는 판결자 대신에 중재자로 번역하는 것이 더 좋게 여겨집니다. [이것은 예수, 하나님과 사람 사이의 중보자이신예수님의 예표입니다.] 

욥이 중재자를 언급한 것은 이번이 처음이며, 우리는 후에 그가 이 주제를 발전시키고, 실제로 중재자가계심을 믿게 되는 것을 알게 될 것입니다.

생각해 볼 것들

1. 엘리바스를 어떻게 묘사하시겠습니까? 친구입니까? 조언자입니까? 신학자입니까? 엘리바스에 대한 욥의 반응을 어떻게 이해하십니까?

2. 빌닷의 변론에 대해 어떻게 평가하시겠습니까? 욥과 관련된 그의 어려움은 무엇이었습니까? 빌닷에대한 욥의 반응에서 그와 동일시할 수 있습니까?

3. 자신의 고난이나 세계의 고난에 대해 욥처럼 느꼈던 적이 있습니까? 북한에서 벌어지는 엄청난 고난이나 오늘날 세계 여러 나라의 그리스도인들이 당하는 극심한 핍박을 보면서, “하나님은 어디 계십니까?” “하나님은 왜 의인들을 위해 개입하지 않으십니까?”라고 질문해 보신 적이 있으십니까?

4. 오늘날 세상의 수많은 의인들이 받는 극심한 고난에 대해 어떻게 반응하셨습니까? 욥이 자신의 고난과 관련하여 “중재자”의 개념을 어떻게 이해했다고 생각하십니까?

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Job Lesson Two

 Job Lesson Two

Job 1:1—3:26

The Most Righteous Man of the East Is Attacked by Satan.

Job, the greatest of all the people of the East (1:1—5)

There was a man whose name was Job . . . 

His righteousness and faith were legendary. The prophet Ezekiel considered Job to be one of the most righteous men on earth, along with Noah and Daniel (Ezekiel 14:14). He was very wealthy, and he used his wealth to help those in need. He prayed for his ten children each morning, to protect them from sin that would turn them away from God. God saw his exemplary lifestyle and was pleased with His servant Job.

God allows Satan to test Job (1:6—12)

The Septuagint (Greek translation of the Old Testament) translates the “sons of God” as “angels.” Satan was among them. He is the adversary of God and of Job, as well as of all Christians. From the beginning, his aim was to destroy all followers of God. His supreme failure was his inability to destroy Jesus on the cross; now his purpose is to eliminate the Church, all followers of Jesus Christ. 

Today we know that Satan was behind all the calamities and unbearable suffering that Job endured. But Job did not know this, nor did his three friends who later came to console him. Job was unaware of Satan’s activity to destroy him.    

Satan was never in control of Job’s life. God was in total control. He took the initiative and asked Satan if he had ever considered His servant Job, that “there is none like him on the earth, a blameless and upright man, who fears God and turns away from evil.” (1:8) 

It is important to remember, as we study the Book of Job, how God described Job as a man who had the “fear of the Lord.” A person who has the fear of the Lord turns away from sin and evil and turns toward God. He hates what God hates, sin; and loves what God loves. Job himself understood the fear of the Lord and later says, “Behold, the fear of the Lord, that is wisdom, and to turn away from evil is understanding.” (28:28) Later, after Job has recovered from Satan’s attacks and repented of his sins, we will see the beauty of the fear of the Lord in his life, as the prophet Malachi described it in Malachi 3:16—4:3.

But God allows even those who have the fear of the Lord to be tested by Satan. The Lord allowed Satan to cause Job to suffer, but not to kill Job. So it becomes clear here in the first chapter that God was not punishing Job. Even today we tend to blame our suffering on God. We blame Him for catastrophes of nature, or plagues like the covid-19 virus, or other acts of evil. However, to fully understand God’s purpose in allowing Satan to punish Job so fully, we must remember that God had a higher purpose for Job, that would be fulfilled through suffering, which He would reveal at the end. We know the promise of Romans 8:28. “And we know that God causes all things to work together for good to those who love God, to those who are called according to His purpose (Romans 8:28 NASB) As we study the Book of Job, we will discover the beauty of what it means for God to work all things for good. God had already predestined for Job that he would “become conformed to the image of His Son!” (Romans 8:29 NASB) It will be helpful to remember Paul’s words in Romans 8:28-29 as we continue our study of Job.

Satan attacks and Job responds (1:13—22)

Satan destroyed Job’s family by removing his wealth and causing the deaths of his seven sons and three daughters. 

How did Job respond? He responded to the greatest tragedy he could have imagined, by the greatest act of faith. He fell on the ground and worshiped God! (1:20) “Naked I came from my mother’s womb, and naked I shall return there. The Lord gave, and the Lord has taken away; blessed be the name of the Lord.” (1:21) Job did not sin with his words, and he did not accuse God of doing something wrong. Later, we will see that Job’s response would confuse his three friends, for he did not fit into their orthodox theological framework. 

Job’s friends’ attitude is echoed in other wisdom literature. The Psalms tell us that if we trust in the Lord and do good, He will give us the desires of our heart. They promise that God will protect the faithful and punish the evil ones. But even in the Psalms, or other wisdom literature, we discover that God does not always follow a rigid orthodox pattern on blessing His people. He sometimes allows them to suffer. God never works outside His character, but He sometimes “works outside the box of rigid theology.” 

Satan’s Final Attack (2:1—10)

Satan’s final attack is on both Job and his wife. We can see from this final attack that Satan is not only a murderer; he is also the father of lies. He complains to God that Job still holds fast to his integrity, “although You incited me against him to destroy him without reason.” (2:3) God never gave Satan the power to destroy Job; He only says, “Behold, he is in your hand; only spare his life.” (2:6) 

Satan attacked Job’s body with boils, and became disfigured to the extent that his three friends could not even recognize him when they met him. Like the psalmist in Psalm 39, Job saw that his lifetime was as nothing before God. But in all these things Job did not sin with his mouth. 

Satan attacked Job’s wife by tempting her to tell Job to curse God and die. But we will see at the end that Job’s wife also was restored along with Job.

Job’s Three Friends (2:11—13)

Job’s three friends heard of Job’s suffering and came to offer him sympathy and comfort. They may have come from several different countries, since their nationalities are described here in chapter two. When they saw him they couldn’t recognize him, and they wept aloud. They sat down with Job on the ground for seven days and seven nights, and “no one spoke a word to him!” This was their greatest gift to Job, sitting in the stillness of God with him. They did not speak until Job spoke. They must have prayed for Job, for all prayer begins with silence in God’s presence. We will see later that God was with them; He blessed them, through the silence of His presence. God was silent; they were silent. God was with them.   

Job’s Lament (3:1—26)

Until now, Job has not spoken words of complaint. He has expressed his trust in God in spite of his suffering. But he is full of painful emotions, and he has found no relief in silence. So he opened his mouth and cursed the day of his birth. His first words were “Let the day perish on which I was born.” (3:3) 

Take some time now, here in chapter 3, to observe the great power of poetic expression that we will see throughout the book. Understanding the majestic poetic expressions, in our minds and in our hearts, will enable us to understand Job more deeply, and perhaps to even identify with him in some respects. As is true of all poetry, it should be read aloud. Take time now to read verses 1-10 aloud, slowly, with expression. 

Job wonders aloud why God did not just let him die at birth. His big question is “why.” Why was I born to suffer? Why does God not allow those in terrible agony and suffering to die? 

In 3:24-26, Job describes his condition. The two most essential elements for life, bread and water, have been replaced by his sighs. He says that the thing he fears has come upon him. Remember, he prayed each day for his children that no danger would come upon them. Perhaps he feared that one day a great calamity would come upon his family. Whatever he feared has now come upon him. Job is in utter despair, physically, emotionally and spiritually. Death is the only answer. But notice that he does not curse God; he curses the day he was born.

Some things to consider

1. How does the knowledge that Satan was never in control of Job’s life, but rather God was in total control, help you as you seek to understand the suffering of Job?

2. Have you ever experienced Satan’s attacks on your life, your family, or your ministry? If so, to what degree? Can you remember how you prayed? How did you overcome these attacks?

3. What is your first impression of Job’s three friends? What do you think happened in the seven days and seven nights of silence?

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욥기 재2과

욥기 제2과

욥기 1:1—3:26

동방에서 가장 의로운 사람이 사탄의 공격을 받다.

동방 사람 중에 가장 훌륭한  (1:1-5)

욥이라 불리는 사람이 있었는데 … 

그의 의와 믿음은 전설적이었습니다. 선지자 에스겔은 노아, 다니엘과 함께, 욥을 이 땅에서 가장 의로운 사람으로 여겼습니다. 그는 아주 큰 부자였고, 자신의 부를 도움이 필요한 사람들을 위해 돕는 데 사용했습니다. 그는 매일 아침 열 명의 자녀들이 하나님에게서 멀어지는 죄악에서 보호해 주시기를 기도했습니다. 하나님은 그의 모범적인 삶의 방식을 보셨고, 그의 종 욥으로 인해 기뻐하셨습니다. 

사탄이 욥을 시험하도록 하나님께서 허락하심 (1:6-12)

70인역 (구약의 헬라어 번역본)은 “하나님의 아들들”을 “천사들”로 번역합니다. 사탄은 그들 중에 있었습니다. 그는 하나님과 욥의 적일 뿐 아니라, 모든 그리스도인들의 적입니다. 태초부터 그의 목표는 하나님을 따르는 모든 사람들을 파멸시키는 것이었습니다. 그의 가장 큰 실패는 십자가에서 예수님을 멸망시킬 수없었던 것이었습니다. 이제 그의 목적은 그를 따르는 모든 사람 들, 곧 예수 그리스도의 교회를 제거하는 것입니다. 

오늘 우리는, 욥이 견뎌냈던 모든 재앙과 참을 수 없는 고난의 뒤에 사탄이 있었다는 것을 압니다. 그렇지만 욥은 물론 그를 위로하기 위해 찾아왔던 세 친구들도 그것을 알지 못했습니다. 욥은 그를 파멸시키려는 사탄의 활동을 알아채지 못했습니다. 

사탄은 욥의 삶을 장악하지 못했습니다. 그는 하나님께서 전적인 통제 아래 있었습니다. 하나님께서는먼저 사탄에게 그의 종 욥을 주목하여 본 적이 있는지 주도적으로 질문하시면서 이렇게 말씀하셨습니다. “그와 같이 온전하고 정직하여 하나님을 경외하며 악에서 떠난 자는 세상에 없느니라” (욥 1:8)

욥기를 공부할 때, 하나님께서 욥을 “하나님을 경외하는” 사람으로 어떻게 묘사하고 있는지 기억하는 것이 중요합니다. 하나님을 경외하는 사람은 죄악에서 돌이켜 하나님께로 향합니다. 그는 하나님께서 미워하시는 죄를 미워했고, 하나님께서 사랑하시는 것을 사랑했습니다. 욥 자신도 하나님을 경외하는 것을 이해하고 있었으며, 나중에 이렇게 말했습니다. “보라 주를 경외함이 지혜요 악을 떠남이 명철이니라” (28:28) 나중에 욥이 사탄의 공격에서 회복되고 죄를 회개하고 난 뒤에, 그의 삶에서 말라기 3:16-4:3절에서 선지자말라기가 묘사한 것과 같은, 주를 경외하는 아름다움을 보게 될 것입니다. 

그렇지만 하나님께서는 주를 경외하는 사람들조차도 사탄의 시험을 받도록 허락하십니다. 주님은 사탄이 욥에게 고난을 줄 수는 있어도 그를 죽이지는 못하게 하셨습니다. 그래서 여기 1장에서는 하나님께서 욥을 저주하지 않으셨다는 것이 더 명확해졌습니다. 오늘날에도 우리는 우리가 당하는 고난에 대해 하나님을원망하는 경향이 있습니다. 우리는 자연의 대재앙이나 코로나 바이러스 같은 전염병, 또는 세상에서 벌어지는 그 밖의 악한 행동들에 대해 하나님을 원망합니다. 그러나 사탄이 욥을 그토록 온전히 재앙을 내리도록허락했던 하나님의 목적을 완전히 이해하기 위해서, 우리는 욥을 향한 하나님의 더 큰 목적이 있었음을 기억해야만 합니다. 그것은 고난을 통해 성취될 것이며, 하나님께서는 마지막에 그것을 완전히 계시하실 것입니다.   

우리는 로마서 8:28절의 약속을 기억합니다. “우리가 알거니와 하나님을 사랑하는 자 곧 그의 뜻대로부르심을 입은 자들에게는 모든 것이 합력하여 선을 이루느니라.” (로마서 8:28) 욥기의 공부를 하면서 우리는 모든 것이 합력하여 선을 이루시는 하나님의 역사하심의 아름다움을 발견하게 될 것입니다. 하나님께서는 욥을 “그 아들의 형상을 본받게 하기 위하여” (로마서 8:29) 미리 정하셨습니다. 욥기 성경공부가 계속되는 동안 로마서 8:28-29절에 기록된 바울의 말을 기억하는 것이 도움이 될 것입니다.  

사탄의 공격과 욥의 반응 (1:13-22)

사탄은 욥의 재산을 없애고, 그의 일곱 아들과 세 딸의 죽게 함으로써 욥의 가족을 무너뜨렸습니다.  

욥은 어떻게 반응했을까요? 그는 상상할 수 없었던 가장 큰 비극에 대해 가장 위대한 믿음의 행동으로반응했습니다. 그는 땅에 엎드려 하나님을 예배했습니다! (1:20) “내가 모태에서 알몸으로 나왔사온즉 또한알몸이 그리로 돌아가올지라 주신 이도 여호와시요 거두신 이도 여호와시오니 여호와의 이름이 찬송을 받으실지니이다.” (1:21) 욥은 말로 범죄하지 않았고, 하나님이 잘못을 저질렀다다고 비난하지도 않았습니다. 나중에 우리는 욥의 반응이 그의 세 친구를 혼란스럽게 할 것임을 알게 될 것입니다. 그의 반응은 그들이 가진 정통 신학적 틀에 맞지 않았기 때문입니다.

욥의 친구들의 태도는 다른 지혜서에서도 그대로 드러납니다. 시편은 만일 우리가 주를 신뢰하고 선을행하면, 그가 우리 마음에 소원을 주실 것이라고 말합니다. 또한 하나님께서 신실한 자들을 보호하시고 악한 자들을 저주하실 것이라고 약속합니다. 그런데 시편에서도, 그리고 다른 지혜서에서도 우리는 하나님께서 그의 백성들을 축복하는 데 있어서 엄격하고 정통적인 패턴을 항상 따르지 않는다는 것을 발견하게 됩니다. 때로 하나님께서는 그들에게 고난을 허락하십니다. 하나님께서는 결코 그분의 성품을 벗어나서 일하지않으시지만, 때로는 “엄격한 신학의 틀 밖에서 역사하십니다.”

사탄의 마지막 공격 (2:1-10)

사탄의 마지막 공격은 욥과 그의 아내에게 동시에 임했습니다. 우리는 이 마지막 공격을 통해서 사탄이단지 살인자일 뿐 아니라 거짓의 아비라는 것을 알 수 있습니다. “네가 (사탄이) 나를 (하나님을) 충동하여까닭 없이 그를 (욥을) 치게 하였어도” (2:3) 욥이 여전히 정직함 가운데 굳건히 서 있는 것에 대해 사탄은하나님께 불평했습니다. 하나님께서는 사탄에게 욥을 멸할 권능을 주신 적이 없으십니다. 그에게 이렇게 말씀하셨을 뿐입니다. “내가 그를 네 손에 맡기노라 다만 그의 생명은 해하지 말지니라.” (2:6)

사탄은 욥의 몸에 종기가 나게 해서 그를 공격했고, 그의 세 친구들이 욥을 만났을 때는 그를 알아볼 수없을 정도로 몸이 상해 있었습니다. 시편 39편에서의 시편 기자의 모습처럼, 욥은 하나님 앞에서 그의 일생이 주 앞에 없는 것과 같았음을 보았습니다. 그렇지만 이 모든 일들 속에서도 욥은 그의 입으로 범죄하지 않았습니다. 

사탄은 욥의 아내를 격동시켜서 욥에게 하나님을 저주하고 죽으라고 말하게 했습니다. 그러나 우리는결국 욥의 아내 또한 욥과 함께 회복되는 것을 보게 됩니다. 

욥의  친구들

욥의 세 친구들은 욥의 고난을 듣고 그를 위문하고 위로하기 위해 찾아왔습니다. 여기 2장에서 그들의국적이 묘사된 것으로 보아 그들은 다른 여러 나라에서 온 것으로 보입니다. 그들이 욥을 보았을 때 그를 알아볼 수 없었고, 그래서 큰 소리로 울었습니다. 그들은 욥과 함께 땅에 앉아서 칠일 밤낮을 함께 있었습니다. 그리고 “한 마디도 말하는 사람이 없었습니다!” 욥과 함께 하나님의 고요하심 가운데 앉아 있는 것은 욥에게 가장 큰 선물이었습니다. 그들은 욥이 말할 때까지 말하지 않았습니다. 그들은 욥을 위해 기도했을 것입니다. 왜냐하면 모든 기도는 하나님의 임재 안에 있는 침묵에서 시작되기 때문입니다. 우리는 후에 하나님께서 그들과 함께 계셨음을 보게 됩니다. 하나님은 그분의 임재의 침묵을 통해 그들을 축복하셨습니다. 하나님은 잠잠히 계셨고, 그들은 침묵했습니다. 하나님께서는 그들과 함께 계셨습니다. 

욥의 애가 (3:1-26)

이 때까지 욥은 원망의 말을 하지 않았습니다. 그는 고난에도 불구하고 하나님을 향한 신뢰를 표현했습니다. 그렇지만 고통의 감정이 그에게 가득 찼고, 침묵 속에서 어떤 안도감도 찾지 못했습니다. 그래서 그는입을 열어 자신의 출생을 저주했습니다. 그가 내뱉은 첫 번째 말은 “내가 난 날이 멸망하였더라면” (3:3)이었습니다. 

이제 잠시 시간을 두고 여기 3장에서 이 책 전체에 걸쳐 우리가 볼 수 있는 시적인 표현의 위대한 힘에대해 살펴보시기 바랍니다. 우리의 마음과 생각 속에서 이 웅장한 시적 표현을 이해하는 것은 우리가 욥을더 깊이 이해할 수 있게 해 줄 것입니다. 그리고 어떤 면에서는 그와 동일시하는 데까지 이를 수 있을 것입니다. 모든 시가 그렇듯이 이 장은 큰 소리로 읽어야 합니다. 이제 1-10절까지를 큰 소리로, 천천히, 표현하면서 읽어 보십시오. 

욥은 그가 태어날 때 하나님께서 왜 그를 그냥 죽도록 내버려 두지 않으셨는지 궁금하다고 큰소리로 질문했습니다. 그의 가장 큰 질문은 “왜”였습니다. 왜 나는 고통받기 위해 태어났습니까? 하나님은 왜 끔찍한괴로움과 고난에 처한 사람들이 죽는 것을 허락하지 않으십니까?

3:24-26절에서 욥은 그의 상태를 설명합니다. 삶에서 가장 큰 두 가지 요소인 음식과 물은 탄식으로 바뀌었습니다. 그가 두려워하는 것이 그에게 임했다고 말했습니다. 그가 매일 자녀들에게 어떤 위험도 닥치지않도록 기도했다는 것을 기억하십시오. 아마도 그는 어느 날엔가는 엄청난 재앙이 그의 가족에게 임할 것을두려워했는지도 모릅니다. 그가 두려워했던 것이 무엇이었든지 이제 그것이 그에게 임했습니다. 욥은 육체적, 감정적, 영적으로 완전한 낙망 가운데 있었습니다. 죽음만이 유일한 답이었습니다. 그렇지만, 욥이 하나님을 저주하지 않았다는 것에 주목하십시오. 욥은 그가 태어난 날을 저주했습니다.  

생각해 볼 것들

1. 사탄이 욥의 삶을 절대로 장악할 수 없으며, 하나님의 완전한 통제 아래 있었다는 사실이 우리가 욥의 고난을 이해하려는 데 어떤 도움을 줍니까?

2. 우리의 삶, 가정, 그리고 사역에 대한 사탄의 공격을 경험해 본 적이 있습니까? 만일 그렇다면 어느정도였습니까? 어떻게 기도했는지 기억하실 수 있습니까? 이러한 공격들을 어떻게 이겨내셨습니까?

3. 욥의 세 친구들에 대한 첫인상은 무엇입니까? 침묵으로 보냈던 칠일 밤낮 동안 무슨 일이 있었다고생각하십니까?

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